Z*Magazine: 12-Jan-92 #201

From: Atari SIG (xx004@cleveland.Freenet.Edu)
Date: 10/09/93-04:21:13 PM Z

From: xx004@cleveland.Freenet.Edu (Atari SIG)
Subject: Z*Magazine: 12-Jan-92 #201
Date: Sat Oct  9 16:21:13 1993

                    Z*NET ATARI 8-BIT ONLINE MAGAZINE
            "Z*Magazine" - The Original Atari Online Magazine
                                Issue #201
                             January 12, 1992
                      Publisher/Editor : Ron Kovacs
                      Assistant Editor : Stan Lowell
                      Contributing Editor: Bob Smith
                  CompuServe: 75300,1642    GEnie: Z-NET
        Z*NET BBS: (908) 968-8148   BLANK PAGE BBS: (908) 805-3967
                Copyright (c)1992, Rovac Industries, Inc. 

       * The Editors Desk...............................Ron Kovacs
       * Z*Net Newswire...................Ron Kovacs and John Nagy
       * The 8-Bit State............................Chuck Steinman
       * Carolyn's Corner...........................Carolyn Hoglin
       * Living With An 8-Bit........................Jim Brozovich 
       * Structured Programming - Part 3.............Michael Stomp
       * Z*Net: PC Online Magazine Issue #21.................Index
 * THE EDITORS DESK                                        by Ron Kovacs
 It has been JUST ONE WEEK since we published an Issue of Z*Magazine!!
 The bi-weekly concept however will sooner or later take effect in a few
 weeks.  Until that time however, look for regular releases with the
 latest Atari news and 8-bit articles.
 In the next edition, we will cover the Atari 8-Bit FoReM Fnet system
 and take a look at what is available.  Also, the JACG BBS in New Jersey
 has returned, look for information next week.
 The editorial staff of ST-INFORMER, a popular monthly Atari tabloid-
 format publication, walked off the job on Monday, January 6, 1992, and
 plan to create their own rival Atari magazine.  According to Mike
 Lindsay, Oregon-based editor for ST-INFORMER since its inception nearly
 four years ago, the breakup is the result of a long-standing
 disagreement over ownership of the magazine.  Publisher Rod McDonald has
 asserted sole ownership, while Mike and others had believed that the
 magazine was a three-way partnership.  Rather than prolong the dispute,
 Mike, Darren Meers (layout), and many of the staff writers have decided
 to leave ST-INFORMER and create their own new Atari magazine.  Plans are
 far from complete at this time, but Lindsay says that they may have a
 premier issue as soon as February.  Mike also indicated that although he
 has no evidence that ST-INFORMER will not continue to publish, his new
 magazine will voluntarily honor all ST-INFORMER subscriptions in the
 event that McDonald does not choose to stay in the Atari marketplace.
 Of concern to many in the Atari community is the question of whether the
 fragile developer and dealer base can sustain yet another competitor for
 their limited advertising dollars during recessionary times.
 Subscribers, writers, and advertisers are asked to be patient while
 things settle.  Z*Net will have more on this story next week.
 Greg Pratt has left as President of Atari Corporation (U.S.) for a new
 position with Creative Labs, Inc., makers of the "Sound Blaster" series
 of sound cards for MS-DOS computers.  After seven years with Atari and
 even more years before that with the Tramiel family at Commodore, Greg
 Pratt will leave the president and general manager responsibilities to a
 group of people within Atari including Sam Tramiel and Augie Ligouri,
 and there are no immediate plans to replace him.  Greg was chief
 financial officer for many years at Atari, and was named President in
 November 1990 after the departure of Elie Kenan of France.  Pratt gave a
 rousing talk on the future of Atari at the Chicago Computerfest by Atari
 in November, 1991 (reprinted in Z*NET issue #9151), in which he
 indicated personal enthusiasm for the company.  The agenda and goals
 outlined in his talk will continue uninterrupted, according to other
 Atari officials.  Those close to Pratt inside Atari are both saddened by
 his decision to leave the company as well as personally happy for Greg,
 as the opportunity offered by his new position is very attractive and
 challenging.  This move had been planned for "some time" according to
 Atari sources, and corporate direction and planning remain unchanged. 
 Vice President of Sales Don Mandell will continue to supervise the sales
 organization, with marketing by Bill Rehbock, James Grunke, and Art
 Morgan under the direction of Sam Tramiel.  A consolidation of the Atari
 U.S. accounting with Atari corporate accounting has been made, returning
 to the way the company operated in 1985.  Pratt assisted in this change
 before his departure.  An official press release from Atari Corporation
 on the entire matter is expected soon.
 Atari Canada this week released details on the new purchase plans.  The
 packages which include an educational institute, registered company
 employee purchase programs and non-profit agencies.  The pricing
 structure, options and flexible payment plan ensures that a computer is
 within the budget of anyone even in these economically troubled times.
 Financing is underwritten by Commcorp Financial Services Inc, formerly
 Norex.  CIBC Leasing Inc is owned in part by the Canadian Imperial Bank
 of Commerce.  Structuring is done on a lease plan with 24, 36 or 42
 months with payments made by automatic bank withdrawal.  On completion
 of all lease payments you own the equipment for $10.00.  You may buy out
 the lease anytime before expiration for the discounted payment stream
 (balance of payments less unearned interest), plus applicable PST and
 GST, with no additional fees.  In a conference call with Atari Canada's
 Geoff Earl (General Manager) and Murray Brown (Western Canada Sales and
 Marketing Rep) we learn the plan has met with favour by dealers.
 Dealers can only profit from the program.  The sale of several hundred
 units  are possible just from one contact.  The idea is to have one key
 person in the company or organization involved as an administrator to
 handle the transactions.  This person would receive as an incentive, a
 Portfolio for any sales above $15,000.00.  With most companies realizing
 the advantage of computers in the workplace, some are offering incentive
 plans.  A major westcoast city is offering a $500.00 rebate towards a
 computer system for any municipal employee.  A west coast telephone
 company is offering a $300.00 rebate to its workers on any DOS
 compatable system.  School boards are also the latest to jump on the
 bandwagon and realize that the workplace is not the only place that
 computers belong.  The students of today have better equipment at home
 than most schools and probably know more than the teacher about
 computers.  Atari Canada has assembled some very good promo material
 available for this plan.  Flip charts and brochures are available and
 your local representitive will be pleased to help you with your
 presentations.  For more information please contact Geoff Earl at Atari
 Canada (416) 479-1266 or your local Atari dealer.  In a similar move,
 Atari US will shortly announce an arrangement with Business Credit
 Leasing Corp to provide "Atari Financial Services" to companies and
 individuals.  The plan is to be available through dealers, who can call
 1-800-328-5371 for more information.
 The backstreets of the Atari community were abuzz with the word that
 Atari Corp was being, in fact had already been sold by the Tramiel
 family.  However, official comment this week from Sunnyvale (after the
 Pratt announcement) is "Absolutely not."  While recent stock position,
 debt/asset adjustments, and personnel changes may have triggered the
 rumor, we have been assured that Atari is moving ahead, not for other
 parties to see, but to advance the company for the current ownership.
 Long range planning and medium range projects are continuing at full
 speed, further reducing the likelihood of any change of ownership at
 Books has announced the release of The ST Assembly Language Workshop,
 Volume 1, a novice's guide to assembly language programming on the Atari
 ST line of computers.  Written by Clayton Walnum, the author of
 C-manship Complete, The ST Assembly Language Workshop, Volume 1 teaches
 the basics of assembly language programming, starting with assembly
 language theory and building up to full-length programs.  Covered in the
 260-page book are the most-used 68000 assembly instructions, programming
 style and technique, file handling, printer output, system clocks, color
 palettes, screen flipping, loading pictures, and more.  A complete 68000
 instruction reference is also included.  When it's released later this
 year, Volume 2 of the series will cover GEM programming, with Volume 3
 tackling various advanced topics.  After studying all three volumes,
 readers will have developed the skills needed to write virtually any
 type of program on an ST.  Even after reading only volume 1, the novice
 assembly language programmer will be able to write full-featured TOS
 programs.  The ST Assembly Language Workshop, Volume 1 comes with a disk
 containing all sample programs and assorted additional files.  It is
 priced at $24.95, plus $3 shipping and handling and can be ordered at
 the address or phone number above.  Visa and MasterCard are accepted.
 Atari Corp announced it has sold it's one millionth game cartridge at
 the Las Vegas Winter CES Show, for the Lynx video game system.  The 
 Lynx, which is the leading color portable and the only system priced
 less than $100, has a library of 40 games.  Atari's Entertainment 
 Division President Larry Siegel said, "Consumers have responded to the
 value presented by the system and the games.  With 75 titles available
 by the end of the year, we'll sell a million more."  Atari's top selling
 title for the year was the award winning Ninja Gaiden, followed by
 Warbirds and Blue Lightning.  Blue Lightning, an aerial combat game,
 expirienced a surge of sales during the Persian Gulf War.  Warbirds, a
 World War I dogfight game, is the first Lynx title to be in the top five
 games on the Software Publisher's Association listing of best selling
 games.  By year end, 75 games will be available for the Lynx, including:
 Super Skweek, Lemmings, NFL Football, Baseball Heroes, Basketbrawl, Pit
 Fighter, Vindicators and Hockey.
 In 1992, the largest color portable software library will get even 
 bigger with traditional role playing, classic arcade and more original
 titles for the Lynx.  Third party developers continue to contribute
 great games to Lynx players.  Telegames, Inc. has reached an agreement
 with arcade giant Tradewest Inc. to publish Double Dragon and Super Off-
 Road, two number one arcade games.  This new long-term relationship 
 brings Lynx players the best of Tradewest and the best of the arcades.
 In addition, several other third party developers have contracted to
 program titles which will be brought out under the Atari name.  These
 companies include: Loriciel, US Gold and Color Dreams, Inc.
 Following up smash hits Qix and The Fidelity Ultimate Chess Challenge,
 Telegames will bring out The Guardians: Storm Over Doria, and Krazy Ace
 Minature Golf.  Up to four players can ComLynx in The Guardians, due in
 March.  The Guardians, legendary heroes each with a unique set of
 attributes, must locate the Master of Mystical Arts, Quellin, who has
 kidnapped Doria's Prince Creshin and stolen hia crown - the crown that
 controls the weather.  As a Guardian you will have to travel across and
 under Doria to find and defeat Quellin through mystical and physical
 combat before Doria is doomed to eternal winter.  There are 15 different
 monsters, 30 magical spells and an internal clock that will vary 
 responses and activities based on time of day and day of week.  In
 Guardians, you can talk to anyone on the streets and use a command menu
 to perform functions such as get, open, break, talk, etc...  The 
 Guardians will be available in March and has a suggested retail price of
 Double Dragon, a two-player game due in July, is regarded as one of the
 greatest fighting games of all time.  The twin brothers in Double 
 Dragon, masters of the material arts, must fight their way through the 
 streets and outskirts of the city to defeat the Black Warriors and the
 evil Shadow Boss.  In Super Off-Road, a four-player mud-flinging dirt
 circuit race, there are 8 different stadium tracks and 16 configurations
 to race on.  Super Off-Road will be available in August.  Both have a
 suggsted retail price of $39.95.
 Shadowsoft Inc, which recently brought out the classic Robotron with
 Williams/Bally, will put Joust on store shelves in April or May and will
 introduce two original titles; a puzzle game and a superhero title.
 Dave Dies, President of Shadowsoft commented that the Lynx is a great
 system to write games for.  "We expect to release 3-4 games for the Lynx
 and expect them to do very well.  This is a great system to work with
 because it has excellent hardware scaling and rotation and we plan to
 write games for it as long as possible."  According to Dies, the company
 is looking to license several other titles for the Lynx.
 To premier at the National Association of Music Merchandisers show
 (January 17-19), the SM147 will be a 14" paperwhite monitor with a flat
 screen.  About the same dimensions or even a bit smaller overall than
 the long-standard 12" SM124, the new bigger screen monochrome monitor
 will feature a tilt/swivel base and retail for $259.95 (suggested).  The
 new monitor will not have a speaker.  The SM124 will probably be
 discontinued, with the SM147 becoming the standard high resolution
 monitor for the STe series.

 * THE 8-BIT STATE                                     by Chuck Steinman
 The following article is reprinted in Z*Net by permission of AtariUser
 magazine and Quill Publishing.  It MAY NOT be further reprinted without
 specific permission of Quill.  AtariUser is a monthly Atari magazine,
 available by subscription for $19.95 a year.  For more information on
 AtariUser, call 818-332-0372.  8_BIT column for November 1991 AtariUser
 Two years in the making, version 2.0x of AtariLink BBS has been recently
 released.  Written in Atari BASIC, it works best when used with
 SPARTADOS but also will work with DOS 2 and others.  Supports ramdisks,
 MIO interfaces, hard drives, etc.  Contact Pab Sungenis at the CCBBS,
 phone number 609-451-7475, or his own BBS at 609-696-0475 for more
 Getting the Big Picture on the Classic Atari
 The visual images presented by computer systems play a significant role
 in how well a particular computer is accepted.  The Atari 8-bit systems
 provide graphics capabilities which are both easy to master and enjoy.
 There are a wide range of graphics applications and utilities available
 to simplify the task of producing and displaying images.
 The video portion of the Atari 8-bit system is maintained by two
 integrated circuits called ANTIC and GTIA (or CTIA in very old systems,
 without support of graphic modes 9-11).  Unique features of the 8-bit
 are not only 15 different graphics modes, but the ability to have any
 mix of graphics modes on the screen at one time.  Through manipulation
 of the "display list", the full palette of 256 colors can be displayed
 at once.
 Eight graphics modes are best known, while three more were added via
 GTIA, and still others are combinations of the 8:
 Gr. Mode     Colors     Mode Type     Resolution
 ------     ---------   ----------    ----------  
    0           2       Text            40 x 24
    1           5       Text            20 x 24
    2           5       Text            20 x 12
    3           4       Bitmapped       40 x 24
    4           2       Bitmapped       80 x 48
    5           4       Bitmapped       80 x 48
    6           2       Bitmapped      160 x 96
    7           4       Bitmapped      160 x 96
    8           2       Bitmapped      320 x 192
    9           16      Bitmapped       80 x 192
   10           9       Bitmapped       80 x 192
   11           16      Bitmapped       80 x 192

 Graphics 9 gives 16 levels of a single color; Gr. 10 has 9 colors; Gr.
 11 has 16 colors of a single intensity.  Each of these extra modes are
 bitmapped 80 x 192 pixels.  More information on ANTIC, GTIA, and display
 list programming is available by consulting the Atari Personal Computer
 System Hardware Manual (Atari part number CO16555), and Do Re Atari,
 both of which are available from Best Electronics and B&C
 One of the easiest to use graphics programs I have seen is the Atari
 Artist package, from Atari.  This kit included a full-featured graphics
 program in a ROM cartridge, a decent sized graphics tablet, and a stylus
 to draw with.  (Fun Hint: put the pointer on the ATARI symbol on the
 main menu of Atari Artist, and click the buttons - a hidden tune will
 play!)  A similar package was produced for many different computer
 platforms including Atari by Koala Technologies Corp., although it had a
 smaller tablet.  The program would save and load both compressed and
 bitmapped images.

 KOALA-to-ST starts graphics there
 Chalkboard Inc. released a tablet called the PowerPad for several
 systems, including the Atari 8-bit line.  I ran across several of these
 tablets in a clearance table at one of the local computer stores, and
 just had to pick up a few.  The tablet size is a full 12 inches square,
 and digitally encoded for better repeatability.
 Unfortunately, very little software was ever released for the Atari so
 it never became that popular.  There are two small programs (including
 source) on GEnie which allow programmers to use the PowerPad as an input
 device for their applications (one was in BASIC and the other in 6502
 No conversation of graphics on the 8-bit would be complete without Jeff
 Potter's name being mentioned.  Several separate graphics oriented
 programs for the Atari have been written by Jeff, including some which
 extend the capabilities of the machine to a new level.  All of these
 programs have been released as shareware, so if you use them, don't
 forget to make the requested contribution!
 One of Mr.  Potter's most popular programs is APACVIEW.  APAC stands for
 "Any Point Any Color" which means a pixel on the screen can be any one
 of the 256 available colors.  The original APAC resolution was 80
 (horizontal) by 96 (vertical), and an interlaced version with double the
 vertical resolution was added in a later release.  The APAC program will
 load and display GIF (graphics interface format) pictures, which are
 readily available since it is a hardware independent format.
 Another program called COLORVIEW, will allow up to 4096 colors to be
 displayed at one time on the screen.  This is done by a complex series
 of vertical blank and display list interrupts, and multiple images in
 memory.  The resolution is the same as interlaced APAC, but the
 technology used to produce the image is totally different to achieve the
 extended palette.
 Because the Amiga is a graphics oriented machine, with an abundance of
 graphics files on the various services and bulletin boards, Jeff wrote
 the ILBMREAD program to convert such pictures to a form usable on the
 Atari 8-bit system.  Of course the Atari ST is also well known for its
 graphics, so Jeff wrote a program which would allow Degas, or Degas
 Elite picture files to be viewed on the 8-bit.  Of course, people which
 have other computer systems will enjoy GIFNCODE, a utility to convert
 many of the Atari 8-bit picture files to the universal GIF format.
 Jeff Potter can be reached on GEnie at username JDPOTTER, or Compuserve
 ID: 74030,2020.

 BIO:  Chuck Steinman is one of the more outspoken promoters of the 8-bit
 cause.  In addition to writing for several Atari related magazines, he
 also helps SysOp the 8-bit section on GEnie, and develops products sold
 by DataQue.  He can be contacted on GEnie and Delphi at username
 DATAQUE, or Compuserve PPN: 71777,3223.


 * CAROLYN'S CORNER                  by Carolyn Hoglin, Orlando, Florida
 Reprinted from the Mid-Florida Atari Computer Club Newsletter, 3/91
 Q--> How can I prepare a document with AtariWriter Plus that will be
      compatible with WordStar or another word processing program on a
      16-bit computer?
 A--> We have two problems here:  The textfile itself (the Atari
      document) and the medium (the Atari disk).  Both are essentially
      incompatible with a 16-bit computer.  This is not to say that the
      job cannot be done.  It just takes a little doing.
 Begin by typing your document into AtariWriter Plus as usual, but DO NOT
 use any internal formatting commands, such as for centering, expanded
 print, underlining, etc.  It doesn't matter how the formatting is set up
 on the Global Format screen because these instructions won't be used
 When you have proofread your text, and everything is A-OK, save the file
 as usual.  Now go back to the edit screen.  From the top-of-file, press
 [START]-S.  When prompted for your search string, hold down the [SHIFT]
 key and hit [ESC] twice, followed by a [RETURN].  Then press [START]-R
 and enter the replace string as [CTRL]-M [CTRL]-J followed by the usual
 [RETURN].  The string will look like a stylized "MJ" and in ASCII it
 translates to a carriage return and a line feed.
 Now for the magic:  press [OPTION]-G and all those Atari return symbols
 (ASCII 155) will be replaced by ASCII 13 and 10.
 This modified file must be saved from the AtariWriter Plus menu by
 pressing [CTRL]-S to SAVE ASCII.  Give the file the extender of ".ASC"
 so that you will not get it mixed up with the first saved file.  It's a
 good idea to keep both files, because if you want to edit the text
 later, it will be much easier to work from the first file - and then do
 the global-replace bit and ASCII SAVE again - than to work in the ASCII
 file itself.  (The latter appears to be one huge paragraph when viewed
 in AtariWriter Plus.)
 Well, now we have solved our first problem.  We have a file that, byte
 for byte, will be compatible with most word processing programs on 16-
 bit computers.  But this file is still on our Atari-formatted disk
 (single, enhanced, or double density) which will not be readable by a
 16-bit computer.  There are several ways to handle this:
 1) If you have both computers yourself and also a null modem, you can
    boot each computer with its own terminal program and send the Atari
    ASCII file to the 16-bit (Atari, IBM, or what-have-you) computer.
 2) If you have both computers, but do not have a null modem, you can
    upload the ASCII file from your Atari to a BBS that features F-Mail.
    Then call the BBS back with your 16-bit computer and download the
    same file.  Be sure to erase the file from the BBS once you have
    downloaded it.
 3) If the converted file is for someone other than yourself, you can
    either contact your friend directly via modem; or you can upload the
    file to a BBS, where he or she can download it to the 16-bit
 Finally, you'll have a 16-bit file on a 16-bit disk, which can be loaded
 into any word processor and formatted to suit your needs.
 If you have any questions concerning word processing in general or
 AtariWriter Plus in particular, send them to the editor of the MFACC
 Bulletin.  We'll try to publish the answers promptly.

 * LIVING WITH AN 8-BIT                                 by Jim Brozovich
 Reprint from Michigan Atari Magazine
 If you are like me, you purchased your Atari system years ago when only
 the Fortune 500 could afford an IBM system.  The trusty old Atari has
 been much help in family budgeting, income tax preparation (via Antic
 Syncalc spreadsheets), and helped immensely in my recent job search.
 But at work, IBM was king, and I became a power user of Lotus 1-2-3,
 Javelin Plus, and custom built decision support models.
 This lead to a desire to upgrade to a "real" machine and relegate the
 trusty old Atari to a kid's game machine.  Being the frugal sort, I
 always resisted this temptation by making my Atari a more robust machine
 with every conceivable upgrade possible, ranging from the Newell 256KXL
 memory upgrade including the Ramrod XL operating system with 80 Column
 upgrade and to two US Doubler equipped 1050s.  But no matter whether I
 added extra memory or 80 columns in Atariwriter Plus+ or double density
 drives, I still did not have IBM compatibility.
 As the price of IBM clones dropped, more and more co-workers were buying
 their first PCs or scraping their C64s for the new clones.  Eventually,
 I became the outcast and was looked upon as being the strange one for
 not being able to take work home.  Once again, I was faced with the
 prospect of scrapping an investment of over $2500 in hardware and
 software and years of accumulated knowledge about the intricacies of
 applying the 8bit Atari to productivity applications.
 I was almost ready to make the plunge to the IBM world when I noticed an
 ad in Antic Magazine for the Happy 7.1 Upgrade and software claiming
 that it gave IBM file compatibility to the 8bit Atari without resorting
 to null modem cables or telephone hook-ups.  Also, Happy dropped their
 price from $249.95 to $99.95 (does this say something about the life
 cycle of 8bit products?) which made the decision easier.  I promptly
 called up my friendly mail order house because no local merchants
 stocked the product.  By the way, it's getting harder to find any 8bit
 products on store shelves in the Detroit area.  Anyway, less then a week
 later the man in the "Big Brown Truck," UPS to those of you without
 kids, delivered my Happy 1050 Upgrade, Happy Disk Controller, and
 Version 7.1 software.
 Being a hardware hacker made installation a simple matter for me, no
 soldering or desoldering required.  But if you can't tell the difference
 between a Phillips screwdriver and and a floppy disk, you might want to
 find someone to do the installation for you.  After printing out the
 documentation, I was eager to translate an Atari file into IBM format so
 that I could take it to work to and see if this thing really worked.
 Much to my chagrin, I discovered the Happy cannot Format IBM disks so
 the test had to wait.
 Formatting disks for use with the Happy 1050 must be done from the
 MS-DOS machine using the Format A:/1 command because the 1050 is single-
 sided and the IBMs, except some early PCs are double-sided.  After
 formatting a supply of disks on the IBM machine, I proceeded to make
 copies of files from the Atari to the IBM and visa versa.
 My objective in this whole process was to be able to transfer numeric
 data between Syncalc and Lotus 1-2-3 and textual data from Atariwriter
 Plus to IBM readable ASCII text files.  The later proved easy once I
 learned to use the Save ASC option from Atariwriter Plus and use the
 Text Translation = Yes Option in the IBMXFR program supplied by Happy.
 The resulting text files on the IBM had none of the the text formatting
 options they had in Atariwriter Plus.  My IBM word processor,
 Volkswriter, was able to load the files with only one problem.  That is,
 any imbedded print characters in the files such as Cntl U for
 underlining caused the data within the print codes to be garbled in the
 translation.  Removing all of the embedded characters with Atariwriter
 Plus before saving the files in ASC format solved the problem but it
 does make compatibility a little less complete because the necessary
 formatting commands must then be reentered in the IBM file.
 The Syncalc translation process proved to be much more complicated.  My
 first attempts were with DIF files created by Lotus 1-2-3 version 2.01.
 The Happy IBMFXR program translated them OK, but when I tried to load
 them into Syncalc using the Load-Data Option, weird things happened --
 only part of the file came through and some of it was garbled.  Going
 from a Syncalc DIF to Lotus 1-2-3 was OK but I couldn't go from 1-2-3 to
 A little bit of research turned up the fact that with Version 2.01 of
 1-2-3, Lotus made some changes in the way the program's Translate 
 Utility creates DIF files.  To be more explicit, in version 2.01 of
 Lotus, the Translate Utility ignores all non-needed blank cells when
 creating a DIF file.  This is different from the previous versions of
 Lotus and other programs that account for all the cells in a range
 including the blank cells when creating the DIF file.
 Anyway, a way around this problem was suggested in the June 1987 issue
 of Lotus magazine on page 132.  To create an old style DIF file in Lotus
 2.01 use the following procedure from within 1-2-3:
 1)  Retrieve the file to be translated.
 2)  Put a label-prefix apostrophe in cell A1-type an Apostrophe hit
 3)  Copy A1 to the entire relevant portion of the spreadsheet as
     /C From A1 Push Return
     -To A1..(Type period) Push End Key, Push Home Key.
 4)  The file will look erased but you will notice that a label-prefix
     apostrophe has been placed in each cell of the relevant portion of
     the spreadsheet.
 5)  Re-load the original file using the File Combine, Copy, Entire File
 6)  Re-save the file under a new name.  This yields a file with no non-
     blank cells for the Translate Utility to ignore.
 7)  Translate this new file to DIF using the Lotus Translate Utility and
     your single sided Atari readable disks.  The new file will load into
     Syncalc with no problems.

 One point that must be made is that spreadsheets transferred in this way
 will not work from one program to another ie. Syncalc spreadsheets will
 not run in Lotus 1-2-3 and visa versa.  The documentation supplied with
 the Happy 7.1 Software makes this clear.  Using the DIF files described
 above is only a way of transferring data between programs and not a way
 of transferring models between programs.
 As far as program compatibility goes, it may be possible to move
 Visicalc models from the IBM to the Atari and use Syncalc's translate
 utility to get them into the Atari.  This of course assumes that there
 are people still out there using Visicalc on the IBM PC.  In general, if
 you are really looking for complete compatibility between your work
 based IBM and your Atari 8bit, the Happy 7.1 Upgrade will not serve your
 needs.  You'll have to go out and buy a clone or an ST to get full
 program compatibility.
 This limited compatibility didn't hinder me from getting utility out of
 the program because the applications I was attempting to coordinate
 between the two machines involved only the exchange of data and not the
 transfer of models.  In other words, if you want to be able write a memo
 on your Atari at home over the weekend and then take the disk in to work
 and print it out and distribute on your IBM on Monday, then the Happy
 7.1 Upgrade is for you.  If, on the other hand, you are developing a
 capacity planning model in Lotus 1-2-3 and want to be able to see your
 kids before they go to bed, your choices are more limited, either buy
 the clone or ST or learn to work late.
 My own applications point up a limitation that you have on the Atari
 8bit, for productivity programs, that you don't have on more robust
 machines like the IBM.  Namely, what I do is go on-line with Dow Jones
 News Retrieval and download stock prices and news headlines about a
 certain group of companies.  This data is entered into a Lotus 1-2-3
 spreadsheet that does some calculations on the data and serves as a base
 for editing the news headlines and then finally is used to print out a
 report.  In Lotus, I can import my downloaded ASCII data directly into
 the spreadsheet which I can't do with Syncalc.
 In Syncalc, I must type in the numeric portion of the data directly into
 a spreadsheet model, then I Print the file to disk as a print file.
 This file can be loaded into Atariwriter Plus and then merged with the
 rest of downloaded file which Atariwriter Plus can load and edit.  This
 resulting file can then be converted into IBM format for distribution.
 It would be nice if Syncalc would allow you to import ASCII text files
 into a spreadsheet thus saving an extra step that is not required on the
 IBM PC.  If anyone knows of any utilities that can translate ASCII text
 files into DIF, Syncalc, or Visicalc format, I would like to here from
 One other feature of the Happy 7.1 Upgrade you might want to consider
 before you purchase it, is its obvious ability to make backup copies of
 your protected software.  If you are like me, all of the productivity
 programs that I use regularly are copy protected and in many cases the
 manufactures are going out of business, merging or simply not
 distributing there products locally anymore.  This means it is becoming
 increasing important to have backups of your software because if you
 destroy your original disk, it might be next to impossible to easily
 replace it in these days of sparse 8bit software availability.
 The Happy 7.1 Upgrade performs this task admirably even on the Synapse
 software where it has to use PDF files to make copies that only run on a
 Happy equipped drive.  Even with these limitations, it nice to know I
 now have backups for my protected disks.  In conclusion, now that you
 are aware of the limitations of this product, if it still looks like
 something that will fill your needs for limited IBM file compatibility,
 then I heartily recommend you buy the Happy Version 7.1 Upgrade.  After
 all, $99.95 is still a lot cheaper than the $999.00 needed to get into
 an acceptable XT clone machine that is also being made obsolete by the
 boys from Big Blue.

 * ADVENTURES IN STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING - Part 3        by Michael Stomp
 My last article prompted some reader feadback.  To wit: that they had
 been fed top-down design in a programming class and found it to be
 indigestible.  They were told, as is so often the case in programming
 classes, that Top-Down was THE WAY.  Thus, they abandoned structured
 programming altogether, and sought their own way.  Not necessary; in the
 world of programming there are many mansions; top-down is but one.
 Perhaps I should have been a bit more systematic in my presentation
 before.  I'll try to correct that now, and sketch the many different
 methods a programmer can follow, and when each is applicable.  And,
 equally important, when not applicable.  (This characterization of
 methods follows that of P.J. Plauger in a series of articles in Computer
 Language magazine.)
 In this method, you design a program by decomposing it into successively
 less abstract modules; when you get to the level of the atomic
 statements of the language, like INPUT or PRINT, you are done.  That's
 the purist's view of top-down.  Some even set rigid limits, such as "no
 module should take more than one page to list the source code", or "no
 module should contain more than seven statements", and similiar.
 In practice, you usually run into problems well before reaching the
 atomic level, and find some modules that stubbornly resist further
 factoring.  Areas with lots of branches and loops are usually handled
 better other ways.  And trying to design recursive routines by this
 method will drive you mad! Also, you will usually find that your modules
 are not usable as subroutines that can be called from many places in the
 There are a couple of benchmarks you can use to judge when top-down
 decomposition has become unfruitful; coupling and cohesion.  Coupling is
 a qualitative measure of the degree to which two modules interact.  The
 higher the coupling between two modules, the more you have to keep the
 innards of one in mind when you write the other.  If you find you are
 passing an inordinate amount of parameters from one to another --
 especially status flags -- your modules are too coupled, and probably
 shouldn't have been separated in the first place.
 Cohesion is a qualitative measure of the degree a module stays intact as
 you go about debugging and/or enhancing the program.  The lower the
 cohesion the more likely you will find the need to break it up into
 multiple modules as you make changes in the whole program.  On the other
 hand, a module with high cohesion can (relatively) easily be picked up
 out of one program and dropped into another, with little or no changes.
 All in all, top-down design is a good way to start out designing a
 program.  Just be alert for the point in the decompositon when it stops
 working for you, and consider other methods at that point.
 As its name implies, in bottom-up design you begin with low-level
 routines and build up a supply of useful tools.  Build enough of them
 and you can see how to write fancier routines that call on the ones you
 wrote earlier.  If you guess right, eventually you will be able to write
 a main routine that calls on your library of lower level stuff to do all
 the hard work.  This is very much like writing your own language, with
 all the same problems.
 The operative word above is "guess", for if you don't start with a clear
 idea of the program as a whole (or lots of experience) your low-level
 routines may turn out to be ill-defined, and will need to be rewritten,
 and rewritten,... Better to begin with another method of design, and
 keep your eyes open for candidates for your low-level library.  Ones
 that will have low coupling and high cohesion.  (Those benchmarks
 generally apply to many methods of design.)
 I must confess to a weakness for bottom-up design myself, especially
 when I start playing around with a new language.  I want to amass a good
 library of utilities -- whether I really have a need for them or not.
 The danger in this, I have found, is that it is very easy to spend all
 one's time building tools, and never get around to building anything
 with them!
 The name of this method suggests that you are working from the middle of
 a program (the processing of data) out to the edges (the I/O interface),
 and the edges are relatively less important.  This method focuses on the
 actual expression of a module, typically as you labor to capture an
 algorithm in executable code.
 The outward sign of a module ripe for inside-out design is one heavy
 with tests and branches; lots of logic and loops.  (Cases where the
 previous two methods run into trouble.)  This method involves you in the
 full complexity of the program at the most detailed level, and is the
 only method used by most spaghetti coders.  It is better to use other
 methods to reduce the program to a set of functionally cohesive modules
 before applying this method.  To do otherwise is to invite confusion and
 In this method, you focus on the structure of the output data being
 generated by the module.  The name derives from the convention of
 drawing data flow diagrams with input on the left and output on the
 right.  The premise is that the structure of a program should closely
 model that of the data generated, be it data in memory, printed output,
 or screen display.
 Two examples of cases where this method is applicable are printing
 reports from some kind of database, and the XModem/YModem send routines
 in BBS programs.
 Right-to-left design works this way: look at the data the module is to
 generate.  Described its structure in terms of a few basic primitive
 forms, recursively applied.  Then write your program to reflect closely
 the structure you imposed on the data.  The primitive forms you need
 1) Sequence - one thing after another;
 2) Repetition - zero or more instances of the same sort of thing, with
    the count determined by some test;
 3) Alternation - exactly one of a choice of alternatives, the choice
    being determined by some test.
 (Information theorists claim to have proved that +any+ data structure
 can be composed from these three primitives.  I wouldn't know; I haven't
 seen the proof myself.  But I'm willing to accept the idea.)
 Now the way to turn this data structure into structured code is simple;
 use a sequence of statements to generate a sequence of data; use a loop
 repetition of data, and an IF-ELSE to generate an alternation of data.
 Once you have determined the data structure, you have practically
 written the code!
 Right-to-left design is an effective organizing principle only if the
 structure of the output dominates the problem.  If the output is
 trivial, particularly compared to the calculations involved or the
 structure of the input data, this approach is not fruitful.  If input
 data structure is dominant, you should consider:
 As you might expect, this method focuses on the structure of the input
 data to a module.  It is very similiar to right-to-left design in many
 ways, with some possible complications unique to itself.  As described
 above, you consider the input structure as made up of three primitive
 types -- sequence, repetition, and alternation -- and structure your
 code accordingly.
 The main difference this time is, your program does not have complete
 control over the structure, and you have to be prepared to handle
 invalid or incomplete data, and possibly an arbitrary ordering of the
 primitive types.  This can often mean "looking ahead" at the next bit of
 data to determine what to do with the current bit.
 But first, let us consider an example in which the structure is pretty
 well fixed: reading a disk directory.  The structure, broadly speaking,
 1) a repetition of zero or more fixed-length records, one for each file;
 2) a sequence of one record giving the number of free sectors, and
 3) an End-Of-File indication. 
 (We won't consider the structure of each record in this example.)  This
 suggests a loop structure, with possibly a singular "sequence of

     OPEN #1,6,0,"D:*.*"
       INPUT #1, A$
       PRINT A$
     UNTIL A$(3)<"A"
     CLOSE #1

 (I've omitted the DIMensioning of A$.) This just reads each record and
 prints it, including the count of free sectors.  The loop is terminated
 when the third character of a record is a numeral where one would
 usually get the first character of the file name; that record must be
 the free sector count.  If you wanted to treat that record different
 from the rest, you would have to make a change so as to "look ahead",

     OPEN #1,6,0,"D:*.*"
     INPUT #1, A$
     WHILE A$(3) >= "A"
       <process file name>
       INPUT #1, A$
     CLOSE #1
     <process free sector count>

 In both cases we don't worry about the End-Of-File since we use the
 record with the free sector count for our termination test.  With a
 looser input data structure, we would need to use the End-Of-File to
 terminate the loop.  In Basic, by setting a TRAP right before the INPUT
 statements to take us out of the loop.  Other languages have other ways
 to handle this, that could be put right in the test condition in the
 WHILE or UNTIL statements.
 When the input data structure is not so strictly controlled as this, the
 logic can be much more complicated.  What you have to do then is "parse"
 the input, similiar to a language processor.  In that case, instead of a
 data structure one considers a "grammar" of allowed input, and what
 action should follow each input type.  You may not have consider it as
 such, but the simple menu program in Part II is an example of such a
 "parser".  The logic determines what to do for every input record
 (keypress), including illegal ones.  (In that case, the "grammar" was
 simple enough that no "look ahead" was needed.)  In general though,
 parsing can become quite complicated, and whole books have been written
 on the subject.
 Left-to-right design is an effective organizing principle only if the
 structure of the input dominates the problem.  If the output structure
 is non-trivial as well, this approach is not fruitful.  You may then
 have to consider outside-in design -- to be discussed next time.
 * Z*NET: PC ONLINE MAGAZINE ISSUE #21                             Index
 >> This Week In...
 January 8, 1992         Volume 2, Number 1         Issue #21

         * The Editors Desk............................Ron Kovacs
         * Z*Net Newswire........................................
         * Year In Review: 1991......................Mike Mezaros
         * Telecommuncations Act of 1991..............Kalob Axlon
         * The Graphical Edge........................Mike Mezaros
         * Sound And Music On The PC...................Mike Davis
         * Midi Interfaces...............................Jim Maki
         * Survey Results..............................Ron Kovacs
         * Image Alchemy...............................Mike Davis
         * Top 100 Portfolio Downloads.................Ron Kovacs
         * Format Of ZIP Files - Part 1....................PKWARE
         * Intel Announces SysOp Offer...........................
         * Modem Noise Killer.......................Mike McCauley

                        OUR FIRST WEEKLY RELEASE!
              Now you can read Z*Net PC each and every week!
                Stay current with Z*Net PC, the NUMBER ONE
                     PC-related electronic magazine!

 Z*Net PC is a free, WEEKLY magazine in electronic (ASCII) format that
 features news, reviews, commentary, and other information of interest to
 users of IBM PC and compatible computers.

 This is merely a comprehensive table of contents.

 The complete Z*Net PC Issue #21, featuring all of the articles outlined
 in this file, is available on...

 COMPUSERVE: In the IBM Applications Forum (GO IBMAPP) as ZPC21.ZIP.
 The latest Z*Net PC issues are placed in "New Uploads" (library #0) in
 the IBMAPP forum for several weeks.  After that, they are moved to
 COMPUSERVE, so now you can easily complete your library of our issues!


 NEWS, SIMPLY CAN'T COMPARE!  Not today, not tomorrow -- not ever!

 * - Z*Net PC is free.  Normal connect charges apply while downloading.

 >>>Z*NET NEWSWIRE, PC EDITION...............................Z*Net Staff

 The Latest Industry News and Events.  Why Wait Weeks for the Print
 Magazines to Bring You The News That Z*Net PC Offers Today??


 >>>1991: THE PC YEAR IN REVIEW...........................by Mike Mezaros

 Take a look back and see what the world had in store for us in 1991.  We
 examine the events that changed the way we compute, and in a few cases,
 changed the way we viewed the world.  The technical innovation that
 allowed CNN to broadcast live from the Gulf War, the ACE consortium, the
 IBM-Apple alliance, Microsoft's FTC investigation, the game that
 predicted the Soviet coup, and SO MUCH MORE.

 >>>OPPOSING THE TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT OF 1991.............by Kaleb Axon

 A new bill before congress may allow phone companies to charge BBS
 operators COMMERCIAL rates -- here are the important details, and what
 you need to do if you oppose this legislation!

 >>>THE GRAPHICAL EDGE....................................by Mike Mezaros

 Is Microsoft getting a bum rap?  Digital Research doesn't think so --
 they're claiming that Microsoft won't give them the help they need to
 ensure that Windows 3.1 works properly with DR-DOS!  But is there more
 to the story?  Plus - How do the IBM-Apple agreements relate to the fall
 of the Soviet empire?  Is the "Purple Alliance" doomed to failure?

 >>>SOUND & MUSIC ON THE PC.................................by Mike Davis

 Part 3 of our examination of modern PC audio!  Covered in this issue:
 the SoundBlaster VOC and ROL formats, Microsoft's Multimedia Windows WAV
 format, the Amiga's MOD format, and the Mac's SND format. What are they?
 How can you play them, edit them, and convert them on the PC? Get some
 new insight into the PC sound connection and the new age of mulitmedia
 that we are stepping into.

 >>>MIDI INTERFACES FOR THE PC................................by Jim Maki

 What can you do with MIDI, the music standard musicians demand? How to
 choose a MIDI interface and MIDI-compatible software, and which options
 are currently available!  The perfect guide to MIDI for those interested
 in the musical capabilities that only MIDI can add to the PC.

 >>>Z*NET SURVEY RESULTS.................................................

 How many of our readers are using true-blue IBM's?  How many are using
 a clone, a Mac, an ST?  Which online services do our readers call, and
 which do they prefer?  How many are running Windows?  Which hard copy
 magazines do they value the most?  How long have they been involved with
 computing?  The answers to these questions and MORE are presented here
 in the results of our first-ever Z*Net PC Reader Survey!

 >>>IMAGE ALCHEMY 1.51 REVIEWED.............................by Mike Davis

 Mike Davis examines Image Alchemy, the shareware image conversion,
 manipulation, and compression package from Handmade Software.  Is it
 worth downloading?  Find out about Image Alchemy's features, strengths,
 and weaknesses in this thorough and insightful review.

 >>>TOP 100 DOWNLOADS FROM CIS PORTFOLIO FORUM...........................

 Owners of Atari's DOS-command compatible palmtop PC: find out what your
 fellow Portfolio users have been accomplishing with their machines!
 This list is compiled from the CompuServe Atari Portfolio forum (GO
 APORTFOLIO) and lists the top 100 downloads during 1991!

 >>>THE FORMAT OF ZIP FILES..................................Ctsy. PKWare

 Find out what makes PKZip tick!  Part one of a three part series.

 >>>INTEL ANNOUNCES SPECIAL SYSOP OFFER......................News Release

 Intel now offers special low 9600 baud modem prices for qualified BBS
 system operators - as low as $299.  Here are the details and the order
 form you need to take advantage of this special offer.

 >>>THE MODEM NOISE KILLER...............................by Mike McCauley

 How to build you own line noise filter for around $10!  If line noise is 
 making your telecommunications too noisy for comfort, this article is a 

 ~ Publisher/Editor...........................................Ron Kovacs
 ~ Assistant Editor...........................................Mike Davis
 ~ Contributing Editor......................................Mike Mezaros
 ~ Contributing Editor....................................Bruce Hansford
 ~ Columnist...................................................Jim Manda
 ~ Z*Net New Zealand Managing Editor, Asst Publisher..........Jon Clarke
 ~ Z*Net Canada, Assistant Editor........................Terry Schreiber
 ~ Assistant News Editor.......................................John Nagy

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