Z*Magazine: 5-Jan-92 #200From: Atari SIG (xx004@cleveland.Freenet.Edu)
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From: xx004@cleveland.Freenet.Edu (Atari SIG) Subject: Z*Magazine: 5-Jan-92 #200 Date: Sat Oct 9 16:20:22 1993 ======================================================================= Z*NET ATARI 8-BIT ONLINE MAGAZINE "Z*Magazine" - The Original Atari Online Magazine ======================================================================= Issue #200 January 5, 1992 ======================================================================= Publisher/Editor : Ron Kovacs Assistant Editor : Stan Lowell Contributing Editor: Bob Smith ----------------------------------------------------------------------- CompuServe: 75300,1642 GEnie: Z-NET Z*NET BBS: (908) 968-8148 BLANK PAGE BBS: (908) 805-3967 ----------------------------------------------------------------------- Copyright (c)1992, Rovac Industries, Inc. CONTENTS * The Editors Desk...............................Ron Kovacs * Rumbles, Rambles, Rumors......................Stan Lowell * The 8-Bit State............................Chuck Steinman * Carolyn's Corner...........................Carolyn Hoglin * FCC Allocation Listing................................... * Structured Programming......................Michael Stomp ======================================================================= * THE EDITORS DESK by Ron Kovacs ======================================================================= Here it is 1992 and Issue #200 of Z*Magazine. A milestone in itself because we have returned after an extended vacation and head in 7 years of publishing for the Atari community. Z*Magazine was officially started in 1985 by Bruce Kennedy. My involvement started in 1986 and the rest is history. However, without the assistance of Stan Lowell, Z*Mag would probably never have been exposed and passed along to me. Clinton Smith was also helpful in the early days. I do not want to once again go through it all since there are older issues available that pretty much explain it all. Speaking of older issues, you cannot get them on GEnie. Darlah Potechin the head SysOp on GEnie responded to this in email by stating that all of the non-accessed files are automatically removed. I suppose since the older versions haven't seen a download in years, they have been removed. However, I recently made a check on CompuServe and pleased to report that all of the original Z*Mag issues are still available in the Atari8 Forum. We are now officially bi-weekly! The next edition appears in two weeks! ======================================================================= * RUMBLES...RAMBLES...RUMORS... by Stan Lowell ======================================================================= Well, the Chicago show is over. Looks like everyone made out OK. The 'bad' news is that Atari sent two trucks there loaded with what was left of Atari 8-bit hardware in their warehouse(sigh). For those who could make it to the show, there were some good buys. This makes it all the more important that you *DO* support those who still support our computer. BUY what you use, *DON'T* pirate it! In coming issues, I hope to have reviews of the MUX from a SysOp's point of view. One thing that readers have mentioned they would like to see here are reviews of the various BBS programs for the Atari 8-bit. Got something you would like to contribute to ZMag? I have set up a password for ZMag submissions. Although it is 'limited access, it will allow you to upload(free time), give you download access to the current ZNet publications on my system, as well as let you leave me E-Mail with a 'regular password request'(containing your name, telephone number, password, and age. The 'ZMag Uploader' password on *MY* system is: PW: ZMAG Last four of phone number: 1234 Blank Page BBS @ 908-805-3967 300/1200/2400 - PCP-NJNBR - Starlink Node 3319 Coming soon: I will be networking a "ZNet Pubs" message base with other FoReM-XEP boards. Your comments, etc. will be welcome in the base. Details are being worked out, but it may have started by the time you read this article! All FoReM-XEP boards will also be networking all of the ZNet publications (ZMag, ZNET, & ZNetPC). Hopefully, both of these will happen by the beginning of the new year! My next article will include a list of FoReM-XEP Bulletin Boards carrying the ZMag/ZNet echo. BrickBats --------- I found Andy Eddy's 'review' of online magazines which appeared in ZMag 199 to be "curious." While Mister Eddy commented (in his apraisal of 'PSAN') and "lamented" on the "lack of information" for and about the Atari 8-bits, ZMagaazine was NOT reviewed. It only received a passing mention (due to the fact that ZMagazine may have been indirectly instrumental in launching several Atari online publications), and on his comments about ZNET and STZMag (the predecessor to today's ZNet for the ST) and ZNETPC (for the PC). For those of you who may not be aware, it was ZMagazine that started Ron on the road to becoming one of the "czars" of online computer publications. While it is true that the road has at times been pretty rocky and sporadic for ZMag the past few years, we are 'still around'. Even if we weren't, the old issues still contain much valuable information in them, and can serve as a good resource for Atari 8-bitters!. As I stated last month, new owners of the Atari 8 may have never heard of ZMagazine. Indeed, some long-time owners don't know about us! An "honorable mention" would have been nice. In my humble opinion, it should 'should have' been given. New Stuff --------- The Black Box's add-on floppy controller board was reportedly sold in limited quantities at the Chicago Show! The board will fit atop your Black Box, plug into the 20 pin connector and into one of the sockets. The board will mount upside-down (chips on BB facing chips on floppy board). It will cover a good portion of the Black Box. Two versions will be available. One version will do 360k/720k drives, while a "deluxe" version will have 360/720/1.2/1.44 drives. This makes the Black Box/Floppy Board the *ONLY* system available that can do high density drives. There will also be an added "bonus" with the deluxe version (hmm, what could that be?). "Some" Black Boxes may require slight modifications for the floppy board to fit properly. This is due to various manufacturing techniques used during the Black Box's life. The board will not need its own power supply, but some of the earlier Black Boxes may require different power supplies. Price will likely be in the $100-150 range, but has not been finalized. The board will be capable of reading, writing, and formating Atari ST and PC floppy disks. It will also work with the MUX from CSS, and presumably work with the Black Box upgrade chip also. What I need to find out is if it will work with HD Backup Pro! If it does, THAT combination will be TOP NOTCH! By January, they SHOULD be available in large quantity. If you have a large hard drive hooked to your system, HD Backup Pro is the FASTEST backup program that I have seen. If you have a BB, operate from multiple platforms and tire of 'floppy-swap elbow' you owe it to yourself to get this combo! Imagine porting files between platforms by moving a floppy back and forth! Heaven mustbe here and NOW! Especially for BBS SysOps! Also, CSS has a NEW catalog. If you have ordered from them in the last four months, you will get one automatically. If not, then you can contact and request that one be sent to you CSS at: Bob Puff 04/27/90 Suite 222 2117 Buffalo Rd Rochester, NY 14624 CompuServe Mail: 76702,1076 GEnie Mail: BOB.PUFF Or you can call their BBS and leave Feedback requesting one with your name and address. Computer Software Services(CSS) has moved since Bob Puff acquired sole ownership. The NEW voice phone number is: (716) 429-5639. Their BBS number is still the same: 716-247-7157. Color Bobterm?? --------------- The prolific and creative Tom Hunt, a long-time Atari8-bit supporter has something new again! Here are the docs for one of his latest creations: Documentation for the CGS viewing system. CGS stands for the Color Graphics System for Atari XL/E computers. Color Graphics System (C) 1991,1992 By Tom Hunt ------------------------------------- The CGS viewing system allows you to view online color graphics, when connected to host systems that support CGS. ------------------------------------- REQUIREMENTS: DOS Sparta Dos 3.2d, or Sparta Dos X. SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS Black Box, or MIO, or P:R: Connection, or SX-212 modem connected via SIO. TERMINAL PROGRAM BobTerm 1.21 (Others MIGHT work) ------------------------------------- There are three .COM files contained in this ARC, as follows - CGSVLO COM 2273 12-01-91 11:18a CGSVMED COM 2286 12-01-91 11:19a CGSVHI COM 2315 12-01-91 11:20a Each one does exactly the same thing, but was assembled for one of three setups. SETTING UP FOR SDX The CGSVLO.COM program is for use with SDX. It was assembled at $1300. Your AUTOEXEC.BAT file should look something like this - CGSVLO LOAD COMMAND.COM X BOBTERM If you are using the SX-212 modem (hooked up via SIO), and SDX, your AUTOEXEC.BAT file shoule look something like this. PAUSE CGSVLO LOAD COMMAND.COM SX X BOBTERM If you are using any other kind of modem/interface combination that requires the use of some kind of external R: handler, just substitute the filename of your R: handler in place of the "SX" above. In both of the above examples, no CONFIG.SYS file was used. The defaults of the SDX cartridge were used. SETTING UP FOR 3.2D The CGSVMED.COM file was assembled for use with 3.2d. It was assembled at $1F00. It MUST be the 1st file loaded after DOS initializes. If you are using the SX-212 modem, your STARTUP.BAT file should look something like this - KEY OFF CGSVMED SX BOBTERM If you are using any other kind of modem/interface combination that requires the use of some kind of external R: handler, just substitute the filename of your R: handler in place of the "SX" above. THE CGSVHI PROGRAM This program was assembled at $2300, and is for special curcumstances where you want some kind of resident utility in lower memory. Like Snapshot HD 3.0D. If this is what you need, your STARTUP.BAT file should look something like this - KEY OFF SNAPSHOT PSIRD D5: /X=1111 /F CGSVHI HOW TO OPERATE THE CGS After booting your system with the correct method, as outlined above, set BobTerm's colors for white text on a black background. Do this by pressing "J", then choose "1". Then use the cursor keys to adjust your colors. When done, press ESCape, and "3" to save the configureation. Now you are ready to call up a bbs that supports CGS. Be sure to set your terminal program for ATASCII mode. To switch in CGS, have a joystick plugged into the second joystick port, and push the stick away from you. To deactivate CGS, pull the stick toward you. THE FUTURE At the time of this writing, CGS is in it's infancy. Plans are to expand it to allow online joystick-controlled games, etc. As the CGS development system matures, you may see CGS graphics appearing on many different types of bulletin boards. FOR MORE INFORMATION ABOUT CGS, OR THE CGS DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM Call The Closer To Home BBS, at 419-368-4413, Conference #0. Leave email to Tom Hunt. Be sure to read the CGS convo in the message base for the latest news of developments. BOARDS THAT SUPPORT CGS Closer To Home BBS 419-368-4413 Conference #0 300/1200/2400 baud 24 hours/7 days Shareware --------- From the Pacific comes a different way to display your SpartaDos X and SpartaDos 3.2 directories: *********************************************** DOCUMENTATION FOR WDIR.COM v.1.0 by Jon Melbo *********************************************** INTRODUCTION: Hello and welcome to my first release of 'WDIR.COM'. Just what is WDIR anyway you ask? Well basicly it is an Atari8 implimentation of the WDIR command available on (heaven forbid) MSDOS machines. It stands for Wide DIRectory, and that is pretty much what it does. It is meant to be used under SpartaDOS_X or 3.2x. Instead of providing the detailed (often un-necessary AND space hogging) file information that the standard DIR command gives, it just provides the filename, extension, and size. It does this in an organized columnar format which fits many more files on the screen at once. This format often comes in more handy. HOW TO USE WDIR: It is fairly simple to effectively use WDIR. On the CL, simply type the command WDIR, followed by an optional parameter. The parameter is the drive, pathname, and file match specification. For this version, only SDX users my exclude the parameter. SD32.x users must include a valid parameter to make use of the external command. Example follows: VALID USAGE ------------------------------- WDIR D8:*.* WDIR D:>DVLP>*.M65 WDIR D2:>UNFNSHED>*.ACT WDIR D:*.* INVALID USAGE ------------------------------- WDIR *.* WDIR >DVLP>*.M65 WDIR D2:>UNFNSHED> WDIR D: SDX users who do not include a parameter will get a directory of all files in the current working directory of the current default drive. Very convenient. TECHNICAL INFO: I wrote WDIR using a combination of Action! and assembly language. Although the program does not take up much memory, it requires that you have at least a 48K machine. This is due to over paranoia on my part of memory conflict. I plan to pull the two main segments of the code closer together in a later version. WDIR uses memory from $2551 through $2F07, and $6000 through $607F. In order to use the 6502's inderect Y indexed addressing, I found it necessary to use two adjacent page zero locations as a pointer. The locations are $CB and $CC. Use of thses locations may interfere with some applications, particularly with programming languages. These locations are safe with both Action! and BasicXL, and maybe others. I do know that their use is not okay with MAC/65. The best policy is not to use the command while a language is currently active. WDIR will work fine, but depending on how or if the application saves or preserves its page zero locations, you could possibly tweak something with the application. For those of you wondering about using WDIR with no parameter, WDIR simply provides a "D:*.*" in the open directory code. Thus, SD32.x users will get a listing for drive 1, regardless of what the default drive is should they choose not to use a paramter. FINAL WORDS: WDIR is NOT in the PUBLIC DOMAIN, but is rather 'shareware'. In order to encourage me to enhance this program, and even write new ones, I ask for a small contribution for my efforts should you find it useful to you in some way. A contribution of $8.00 (I like the number 8) is requested. You may freely distribute this software as long as doing so meets the following criteria: a) This DOC file with this message is included in the ARC file along with the WDIR.COM program itself. b) No form of payment is collected as a result of distributing this software. Please support Atari8 shareware software authors, they are all we Atari8 users have left. Don't cheat them. User groups may pay a registration fee of $25.00 and allow all current paying (at time of registration) members to use the software without the need for individual registration. Please send registration fee to the following address, along with your name, mailing address, phone number, and brief description of system hardware to: Jon D. Melbo PSC #2 Box 2288 Hickam AFB, HI 96853 GEnie J.MELBO1 Until next time! If you would like to submit a review, article, or a rebuttal (ANYTHING is welcomed!), feel free to upload to myself or Z-NET Online BBS. I can be reached on my BBS (908-805-3967), GEnie(S.LOWELL), and on Z*Net Online BBS(908-968-8148, Forem ST Node 593). Both of us are PCP node: NJNBR Starlink node: 3319 SUPPORT YOUR LOCAL USER GROUP! SUPPORT ShareWare Authors and others who write for the Atari 8-bit! Support Z*Magazine! Support THOSE who support YOU! ======================================================================= * ATARIUSER MAGAZINE - 8-BIT UPDATE ======================================================================= The following article is reprinted by permission of AtariUser magazine and Quill Publishing. It MAY NOT be further reprinted without specific permission of Quill. AtariUser is a monthly Atari magazine, available by subscription for $18 a year. For more information on AtariUser, call 800-333-3567. 8-BIT ALERT Wanted: 8-bit Atari's! Dr. James Hooper is Director of Medical Services for an Alabama hospital for mentally ill offenders. He's given his own 800XL to the hospital, and patients are eagerly lining up to learn reading, typing, and computer literacy. Funds are not available for buying more, and Dr. Hooper asked AtariUser to solicit tax-deductible donations of 8-bit equipment to expand his program. Individuals or vendors: contact Dr. Hooper at Taylor Hardin Secure Medical Facility, 1301 River Road Northeast, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 35404, 205-556-7060 (NOTE: THIS NUMBER WAS PRINTED WRONG IN THE OCTOBER ATARIUSER). Good news for GEnie users! The hardcopy magazine LiveWire which is mailed to GEnie subscribers bimonthly, has decided to continue coverage of the 8-bit Atari systems. This can partially be attributed to many 8-bit subscribers taking the time to voice their opinion to GEnie, showing that LiveWire editors do listen to subscriber feedback. THE 8-BIT STATE Big Business on the Little System. BIG is better, right? Well, as an Atari Classic user, you know that's not always true. And business is just another area where the 8-bit Atari can and does make itself at home--if we let it. Famous books and screenplays have been written entirely on an Atari 800. An attorney friend of mine used his XL and an Atari 1027 printer for over a year as his exclusive system for preparation of Court filings and briefs. And countless small and home businesses use 8-bit systems to easily and cheaply generate labels for mass mailings every month. Now, it's just as true that fewer people are using the small systems and more are using ST's and PC's to do these things, but that is, in some cases, simply because they have a different machine now and not because of some inherent weakness of the 800/XL/XE system. For those of us on budgets or just those of us who know what we really need, the 8-bit systems remain a perfect answer. While the classic Atari 8-bit computer systems are written off by many as 'game machines', there are quite a few professional quality business applications available for the machines. One of the most popular applications for the Atari 8-bit is telecommunication. Shareware and PD files can be downloaded from bulletin boards and commercial services such as GEnie, Delphi, and Compuserve by using a terminal program and modem. Two of the most popular shareware terminal programs for the 8-bit are BOBTERM by BOB PUFF, and Express by KEITH LEDBETTER. (Telecommunication was featured in the July '91 issue of AtariUser.) A BBS system is not typically thought of as a business application--but it can be an effective one. Especially if you run a computer-related business, having an online information exchange system can be a huge asset for your customers. An online catalog and ordering system can as easily originate from an 8-bit Atari as a more expensive unit, and the results are identical. Custom applications to aid a business venture are simple to program on the Atari 8-bit computers using the built-in BASIC programming language. Many owners have found it easy, educational, and fun to create a several -line program that creates a printed form or takes in customer data. The Atari, with it's huge range of color and graphic modes, is often used to generate advertising TV screens for in-store demos ("SALE: ONLY $29.99 TODAY!"). Similarly, in-house cable TV systems in apartment complexes or motels can use the easy and cheap 8-bit computers to present fixed or scrolling information screens for the resident's convenience. Another popular use for the 8-bit has been database management. A program called MICROFILER by BLACK MOON SYSTEMS ($22.50) allows you to not only store and retrieve data, but also search and sort the information in various records. Information in the database can be printed in any format, including mailing labels. A similar program available from ROYAL SOFTWARE ($35.95) is called SUPER MAILER PLUS. It's menu driven, has help screens, and can support up to four single or double density disk drives. Any classic user with a printer can use a word processor. Whether it is sending a letter to your state representatives, or a note to a friend, doing it on a computer will allow professional looking results every time. Being able to correct typos and move text within a document is so easy you will wonder why it was done any other way. In fact, word processing may now be the #1 use of personal computers in or out of the workplace. While the 8-bit Atari has some limits on display (the 40 column screen makes it more work to visualize the finished wide product), many quality word processors for the 8-bit Atari do feature work-arounds to preview the actual document. My favorite word processor is the cartridge based ATARIWRITER from ATARI, which sells for $39.95. An outstanding shareware word processor is TEXTPRO. For complex mathematical calculations of many variables, a spreadsheet is the answer, and the 8-bit Atari has several to choose from. Spreadsheets allow you to make calculations on tables of data, and easily change the formulas, data, and the way that data is presented. The original spreadsheet was VISICALC from VISICORP and was introduced on the Apple ][, and later ported to the Atari and IBM systems. VISICALC is available for under $25.00 from several sources. TURBOCALC from DATAQUE priced at $20.00 is a similar program, except it is on cartridge and will work with any DOS and disk drive system. SPEEDCALC is available in the public domain and is adequate for many spreadsheet uses. Many of us also use spreadsheets just to easily make tables--the adjustable grid makes it simple to make tabular lists, and to move and add data as it changes. Used this way, it is also possible to make a spreadsheet solve some simple database needs as well. The BOOKKEEPER from ATARI is a general ledger program including modules for Income, Expenses, Invoices, and a general Journal. This package also includes a numeric keypad to simplify entry of numbers. For small business management, this is an excellent system at a cost of under $20! Most of the programs listed above are available from B&C ComputerVisions, 3257 Kifer Rd, Santa Clara CA 95051. They accept personal checks, MC, VISA, and offer COD shipments. Their phone number is (408) 749-1003. TurboCalc is available from DataQue Software, P.O.Box 134, Ontario OH 44862 for $20.00 and $4.00 for postage and handling. DataQue accepts personal checks, and money orders. - Chuck Steinman BIO: Chuck Steinman is one of the more verbal promoters of the 8-bit cause. In addition to writing for several Atari related magazines, he also helps SysOp the 8-bit section on GEnie, and develops products sold by DataQue. He can be contacted on GEnie and Delphi at username DATAQUE, or Compuserve PPN: 71777,3223. ======================================================================= * CAROLYN'S CORNER by Carolyn Hoglin ======================================================================= Orlando, Florida (This has been reprinted from the Mid-Florida Atari Computer Club Newsletter of August, 1991.) There has been some discussion on the BBS 8-bit C-nets about generating custom fonts and characters for printers with the ability to download them. Since that's a special interest of mine as well, I decided to write about my experiences with the Star NX-1000 Rainbow. The NX-1000 series printers have the ability to print both draft characters and NLQ (Near-Letter Quality) characters. In addition, you can create new characters and symbols which can be downloaded and printed interchangeably with the built-in fonts. Designing the dot data for new characters with paper and pencil is very tedious and time-consuming. One could use graph paper (or draw the required matrix of squares), pencil in the required dots, translate this into binary data, and finally send the data for each character to the printer, using the correct preliminary codes. But who would want to? Appendix C of the NX-1000 manual lists an MS-BASIC program to enable you to do your designing on the computer screen, and then automatically download the resultant characters. It also enables you to maintain disk files of character data for future use. Unfortunately, this program does not translate readily into Atari BASIC. As written, it also requires more memory than is available for a BASIC program with an 8-bit Atari (any model). Despite the huge amount of memory required, the program also lacks many desirable features of a full-fledged font-generating program. Even with all these problems, I was determined to design a script font for my NX-1000. Loading up my BASIC XE cartridge, including the BASIC.OSS file, and using EXTENDed mode, I set my sights on writing a new character generator for use with the 8-bit Atari. Some of the MS- BASIC seemed very similar to BASIC XE, but I soon found that the IBM computer's X and Y coordinates are the reverse of the Atari's, not to mention that the 80-column screen of the PC displays more than twice the number of characters than are shown on our 40-column screens. Many hours (read "weeks") later, after typing up what I thought might sorta kinda run on my 130XE, I was devastated to find that all 128K was used up even before the dimensioning of the essential arrays was completed, never mind actually RUNning the program! After much trial and error, I finally succeeded in streamlining the code to fit the available memory, worked out the bugs, and eventually even added many extra features. The resultant program, together with my script font (which took about as long to design as it did to write the program), is now in MFACC's library. The ARCed program and font (NXCHRGEN.ARC) is also available from the ATARIAN DOMAIN BBS in Orlando. Documentation is included. Requirements for the program are a minimum of 128K memory and the BASIC XE language cartridge. (I would have written the program in the public- domain Turbo-BASIC, except for the memory requirement.) If you lack these prerequisites, you can still use my script font with an NX-1000. I have incorporated into the program a "printing to disk" feature that results in a file (NLQSCRPT.PRN) that can be copied from DOS directly to the printer (P:). The printer will then print all text in the new font until it is turned off. Sending the code ESC % 0 (no spaces) will switch to the built-in ROM font, and ESC % 1 will switch back to the downloaded font. If you check the lights on your printer panel, you will note that this file automatically sets Italics, so if you change to the ROM font, you will probably want to switch that off as well. You can either use the code ESC 5 or use the printer's pushbuttons. If you resume the script font and want to reinstate Italics, the code is ESC 4. An alternative to copying the PRN file from DOS is even more convenient. From AtariWriter Plus, LOAD the file NLQSCRPT.PRN. Then while still on the menu screen, hit [CTRL]-S. When you are prompted for a file, type "P:" (without the quotes). When asked, "Replace existing file?", answer "Y". Leave the printer on while you LOAD or CREATE your document. When you PRINT your document, the downloaded font will be used. To change to the ROM font from within the document, type [CTRL]-O 27 % 0 (no spaces). Use [CTRL]-O 27 [CTRL]-O 53 to cancel the Italics. To change back to the downloaded font, type [CTRL]-O 27 % 1 and use [CTRL]-O 27 [CTRL]-O 52 to reinstate Italics. If you have already LOADed or CREATEd your document and then want to print it with a downloaded font, just SAVE the text file, follow the above instructions for sending the new font to the printer, then reLOAD the document and PRINT it. You may find that sometimes you only want an extra character or two, not an entire new font. If you are lucky enough to own BASIC XE, this is no problem, because the character generator program copies the resident font into RAM and only replaces the characters for which you have designed a new shape. For instance, you might replace the back slash with a copyright symbol. Do you need a check mark or a degrees symbol? Design these to replace other little-used characters. Have fun, and please let me know whether my program is useful to you. And I would love to see your new masterpiece character sets! ======================================================================= * FCC ALLOCATION LISTING ======================================================================= (This text reprint from the Mid-Florida Atari Computer Club Newsletter.) Frequency Detail (MHz) =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=- =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= .535 - 1.705 LOCAL BROADCAST - STANDARD NORTH AMERICA, AM BAND 1.427 - 1.429 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 1.705 - 1.800 FIXED SERVICE - LAND/MOBILE/MARINE 1.800 - 2.000 HAM, AMATEUR - 160 METERS 2.000 - 2.107 MARITIME MOBILE 2.000 - 2.500 MARINE, COASTWISE 2.107 - 2.170 FIXED SERVICE - LAND/MOBILE/MARINE 2.170 - 2.194 LAND MOBILE SERVICE 2.194 - 2.300 FIXED SERVICE 2.200 - 2.300 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 2.300 - 2.495 SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 120 METERS 2.495 - 2.505 TIME STANDARD 2.505 - 2.850 FIXED SERVICE - LAND/MOBILE/MARINE 2.850 - 3.155 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS 3.155 - 3.200 FIXED SERVICE 3.200 - 3.400 SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 90 METERS 3.400 - 3.500 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS 3.500 - 3.750 CW, AMATEUR - 80 METERS, CW, EXTRA 3.500 - 4.000 HAM, AMATEUR - 80/75 METERS 3.525 - 3.750 CW, AMATEUR - 80 METERS, CW, ADVANCED, GENERAL 3.700 - 3.750 CW, AMATEUR - 80 METERS, CW, NOVICE, TECHNICIAN 3.750 - 4.000 PHONE, AMATEUR - 75 METERS, PHONE, EXTRA 3.775 - 4.000 PHONE, AMATEUR - 75 METERS, PHONE, ADVANCED 3.850 - 4.000 PHONE, AMATEUR - 75 METERS, PHONE, GENERAL 3.900 - 4.000 SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 75 METERS 4.000 - 4.000 TIME STANDARD - NEW WARC ALLOCATION REGION 3 4.000 - 4.063 FIXED SERVICE 4.000 - 9.000 MARINE, HIGH SEAS AND INLAND WATERWAYS 4.063 - 4.438 MARITIME MOBILE - SHIP/SHORE 4.438 - 4.650 FIXED SERVICE 4.650 - 4.750 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS 4.750 - 5.060 SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 60 METERS 5.000 - 5.000 TIME STANDARD - WWV 5.005 - 5.450 FIXED SERVICE 5.450 - 5.730 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS 5.730 - 5.950 FIXED SERVICE 5.950 - 6.200 SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 49 METERS 6.200 - 6.525 MARITIME MOBILE - SHIP/SHORE 6.525 - 6.765 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS 6.765 - 7.000 FIXED SERVICE 7.000 - 7.150 CW, AMATEUR - 40 METERS, CW, EXTRA 7.000 - 7.300 HAM, AMATEUR - 40 METERS 7.025 - 7.150 CW, AMATEUR - 40 METERS, CW, ADVANCED, GENERAL 7.100 - 7.150 CW, AMATEUR - 40 METERS, CW, NOVICE, TECHNICIAN 7.100 - 7.300 SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 41 METERS 7.150 - 7.300 PHONE, AMATEUR - 40 METERS, PHONE, EXTRA, ADVANCED 7.225 - 7.300 PHONE, AMATEUR - 40 METERS, PHONE, GENERAL 7.300 - 8.195 FIXED SERVICE 7.335 - 7.335 TIME STANDARD - CHU CANADA 8.000 - 8.000 TIME STANDARD - NEW WARC ALLOCATION REGION 3 8.195 - 8.815 MARITIME MOBILE - SHIP/SHORE 8.400 - 8.500 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 8.815 - 9.040 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS 9.040 - 9.500 FIXED SERVICE 9.500 - 9.900 SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 31 METERS 9.775 - 9.995 FIXED SERVICE 10.000 - 10.000 TIME STANDARD - WWV 10.003 - 10.005 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 10.005 - 10.100 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS 10.100 - 10.150 HAM, AMATEUR - 30 METERS, CW ONLY 10.100 - 11.175 FIXED SERVICE 11.175 - 11.400 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS 11.400 - 11.650 FIXED SERVICE 11.650 - 12.050 SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 25 METERS 12.000 - 22.000 MARINE, HIGH SEAS 12.050 - 12.330 FIXED SERVICE 12.330 - 13.200 MARITIME MOBILE - SHIP/SHORE 13.200 - 13.360 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS 13.360 - 13.600 FIXED SERVICE 13.600 - 13.800 SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - NEW WARC ALLOCATION 13.800 - 14.000 FIXED SERVICE 14.000 - 14.150 CW, AMATEUR - 20 METERS, EXTRA 14.000 - 14.300 AMATEUR - 20 METERS 14.000 - 14.350 HAM, AMATEUR - 20 METERS 14.025 - 14.150 CW, AMATEUR - 20 METERS, ADVANCED, GENERAL 14.150 - 14.350 PHONE, AMATEUR - 20 METERS, EXTRA 14.175 - 14.350 PHONE, AMATEUR - 20 METERS, ADVANCED 14.225 - 14.350 PHONE, AMATEUR - 20 METERS, GENERAL 14.350 - 14.995 FIXED SERVICE 14.800 - 15.350 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 15.000 - 15.000 TIME STANDARD - WWV 15.010 - 15.100 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS 15.100 - 15.600 SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 19 METERS 15.600 - 16.460 FIXED SERVICE 16.460 - 17.360 MARITIME MOBILE - SHIP/SHORE 17.360 - 17.550 FIXED SERVICE 17.550 - 17.900 SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 16 METERS 17.900 - 18.030 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE - TRANSOCEANIC FLIGHTS 18.030 - 18.780 FIXED SERVICE 18.068 - 18.168 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 18.780 - 18.900 MARITIME MOBILE - SHIP/SHORE 18.900 - 19.680 FIXED SERVICE 19.680 - 19.800 MARITIME MOBILE - SHIP/SHORE 19.800 - 21.000 FIXED SERVICE 19.995 - 20.010 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 21.000 - 21.200 CW, AMATEUR - 15 METERS, EXTRA 21.000 - 21.450 HAM, AMATEUR - 15 METERS 21.025 - 21.200 CW, AMATEUR - 15 METERS, ADVANCED, GENERAL 21.100 - 21.200 CW, AMATEUR - 15 METERS, NOVICE, TECHNICIAN 21.100 - 21.400 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 21.200 - 21.450 PHONE, AMATEUR - 15 METERS, EXTRA 21.225 - 21.450 PHONE, AMATEUR - 15 METERS, ADVANCED 21.300 - 21.450 PHONE, AMATEUR - 15 METERS, GENERAL 21.450 - 21.850 SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 13 METERS 21.850 - 22.000 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE 22.000 - 22.720 MARITIME MOBILE - SHIP/SHORE 22.210 - 22.500 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 22.720 - 23.200 FIXED SERVICE 23.200 - 23.350 AERONAUTICAL MOBILE 23.350 - 24.990 FIXED SERVICE 24.890 - 24.930 CW, AMATEUR - 12 METERS, EXTRA, ADVANCED, GENERAL 24.890 - 24.990 HAM, AMATEUR - 12 METERS 24.930 - 24.990 PHONE, ANATEUR - 12 METERS, EXTRA, ADVANCE, GENERAL 25.000 - 25.000 TIME STANDARD 25.005 - 25.010 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 25.010 - 25.330 PETROLEUM INDUSTRY 25.330 - 25.600 GOVERNMENT FREQUENCY 25.600 - 26.100 SHORTWAVE BROADCAST - 11 METERS 26.100 - 26.480 LAND MOBILE SERVICE 26.480 - 26.950 GOVERNMENT 26.950 - 26.960 INTERNATIONAL FIXED SERVICE 26.960 - 27.410 CITIZEN'S BAND - 11 METERS 27.410 - 27.540 LAND MOBILE SERVICE 27.540 - 28.000 GOVERNMENT 28.000 - 28.300 CW, AMATEUR - 10 METERS, EXTRA, ADVANCED, GENERAL 28.000 - 29.700 HAM, AMATEUR - 10 METERS 28.100 - 28.200 CW, AMATEUR - 10 METERS, NOVICE, TECHNICIAN 28.300 - 28.500 PHONE, AMATEUR - 10 METERS, NOVICE, TECHNICIAN 28.300 - 29.700 PHONE, AMATEUR - 10 METERS, EXTRA, ADVANCE, GENERAL 29.700 - 29.800 FORESTRY SERVICE 29.800 - 29.890 FIXED SERVICE 29.890 - 29.910 GOVERNMENT 29.910 - 30.000 FIXED SERVICE 30.000 - 46.610 BUSINESS BAND, GOVERNMENT 30.005 - 30.010 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 34.200 - 34.700 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 36.000 - 37.000 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 39.986 - 40.020 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 40.980 - 41.015 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALOCATIONS 46.610 - 47.000 PORTABLE PHONES/BASE 47.000 - 49.670 BUSINESS BAND 49.670 - 49.970 PORTABLE PHONES/HANDSET 49.830 - 49.890 BABY MONITORS 50.000 - 54.000 AMATEUR RADIO - 6 METERS 50.200 - 50.400 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 54.000 - 72.000 VHF TELEVISION (CH 2 - 4) 54.200 - 58.200 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 72.000 - 76.000 MODEL RADIO CONTROL, AVIATION AND INDUSTRY 76.000 - 88.000 VHF TELEVISION (CH 5 - 6) 88.000 - 108.000 LOCAL BROADCAST - STANDARD NORTH AMERICA, FM BAND 108.000 - 117.950 AVIATION NAVIGATION (TERMINAL VOR, ILS) 116.000 - 126.000 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 118.000 - 136.000 AVIATION COMMUNICATION 136.000 - 138.000 WEATHER SATELLITE, GOVERNMENT, BUSINESS 137.000 - 144.000 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 138.000 - 144.000 GOVERNMENT (MILITARY BASES) 144.000 - 148.000 AMATEUR RADIO - 2 METERS 148.000 - 151.000 GOVERNMENT 150.000 - 151.000 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 151.000 - 156.250 BUSINESS BAND (POLICE, FIRE) 156.000 - 162.000 MARINE, INLAND 156.250 - 157.425 MARINE BAND 157.450 - 160.200 BUSINESS BAND (POLICE, FIRE) 160.200 - 161.600 RAILROAD (161.600 IS MARINE BAND) 161.605 - 161.795 BUSINESS BAND (RADIO AND TV REMOTES) 161.800 - 162.000 MARINE BAND (TELEPHONE) 162.000 - 174.000 GOVERNMENT, SOME BUSINESS (RADIO AND TV REMOTES) 162.400 - 162.550 NOAA WEATHER 174.000 - 216.000 VHF TELEVISION (CH 7 - 13) 174.500 - 176.500 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 200.000 - 202.000 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 216.000 - 220.000 MARITIME MOBILE 220.000 - 222.000 LAND MOBILE RADIO 220.000 - 225.000 AMATEUR - 3/4 METERS 225.000 - 329.000 GOVERNMENT (MILITARY AVIATION) 225.000 - 400.000 BOTH CIVILIAN AND GOVERNMENT. 235.000 - 238.000 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 272.000 - 273.000 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 329.000 - 335.000 GOVERNMENT (AIRPORT GLIDE SLOPE NAVIGATION) 335.000 - 400.000 GOVERNMENT (MILITARY AVIATION) 400.000 - 420.000 GOVERNMENT (BASE WALKIE/TALKIES, PAGERS, ETC) 400.100 - 402.000 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 403.000 - 406.000 SPACE RESEARCH FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 420.000 - 450.000 AMATEUR RADIO - 70 CENTIMETERS 450.000 - 470.000 BUSINESS BAND (POLICE, FIRE, RADIO AND TV REMOTES) 470.000 - 890.000 UHF TELEVISION (CH 14 - 83) 806.000 - 810.000 BUSINESS BAND (CONVENTIONAL SYSTEMS, MOBILE INPUT) 810.000 - 816.000 PUBLIC SAFETY (SLOW GROWTH SYSTEMS, MOBILE INPUT) 816.000 - 821.000 BUSINESS BAND (TRUNKED SYSTEMS, MOBILE INPUT) 821.000 - 825.000 LAND MOBILE SATELLITE SERVICE (MOBILE INPUT) 825.000 - 835.000 CELLULAR TELEPHONE NON-WIRELINE (MOBILE INPUT) 835.000 - 845.000 CELLULAR TELEPHONE WIRELINE (MOBILE INPUT) 845.000 - 850.000 CELLULAR TELEPHONE (EXPANSION, MOBILE INPUT) 851.000 - 855.000 BUSINESS BAND (CONVENTIONAL SYSTEMS, BASE OUTPUT) 855.000 - 861.000 PUBLIC SAFETY (SLOW GROWTH SYSTEMS, BASE OUTPUT) 861.000 - 866.000 BUSINESS BAND (TRUNKED SYSTEMS, BASE OUTPUT) 866.000 - 870.000 LAND MOBILE SATELLITE SERVICE (SATELLITE OUTPUT) 870.000 - 880.000 CELLULAR TELEPHONE NON-WIRELINE (BASE OUTPUT) 880.000 - 890.000 CELLULAR TELEPHONE WIRELINE (BASE OUTPUT) 890.000 - 895.000 CELLULAR TELEPHONE (EXPANSION, BASE OUTPUT) 895.000 - 902.000 LAND MOBILE RADIO (MOBILE INPUT) 902.000 - 928.000 AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE RESERVE 928.000 - 930.000 MULTI-ADDRESS PAGING 930.000 - 931.000 ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY PAGING 931.000 932.000 COMMON CARRIER PAGING 932.000 - 935.000 GOVERNMENT/PRIVATE SHARED 935.000 - 941.000 LAND MOBILE RADIO (BASE OUTPUT) 941.000 - 944.000 GOVERNMENT/PRIVATE SHARED 944.000 - 947.000 BROADCAST STUDIO TO TRANSMITTER LINK 947.000 - 952.000 BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES 952.000 - 960.000 MICROWAVE RELAY AND PAGING 956.262 - 956.437 PRIVATE FIXED SERVICE - SIGNALLING AND CONTROL 959.862 - 959.987 COMMON CARRIER RADIO SERVICE - WIDE AREA PAGING 960.000 - GHZ1215 AVIATION SERVICES - NAVAIDS DME GHZ1215 - GHZ1240 GOVERNMENT GHZ1240 - GHZ1300 AMATEUR RADIO, GOVERNMENT ======================================================================= * ADVENTURES IN STRUCTURED PROGRAMMING - Part 2 by Michael Stomp ======================================================================= II. TOP-DOWN DESIGN In top-down design, one does not start with the details of coding the program -- HOW things are done -- but with the over-all flow of the program -- WHAT is done in each module. When, in the process of breaking the complete program down into modules, you reach the stage where each module performs rather simple tasks it becomes time to consider the HOW, the detailed instructions needed to flesh out each module. Structured languages make this process very natural, and makes programming easier in four ways: simplification, clarity, modification, and portability. To illustrate, let us consider a specific example: a menu-driven program, in which the user has a choice of three operations to be selected from a menu. You've probably used many programs structured this way. In TURBO BASIC XL, the main program loop would be: DO EXEC MENU GET KEY: KEY=KEY-48 IF KEY=0 THEN EXIT ON KEY EXEC PROC1, PROC2, PROC3 LOOP END (Of course, you will need line numbers, but they can be anything. And this code fragment would be preceded by statements to initialize, DIMension strings and arrarys, etc.) The procedure MENU would simply print the menu choices on the screen and prompt the user to select one. The choice numbered '0' is to quit the program; '1' is to choose whatever is done by PROC1, and so forth. (Not good choices for procedure names, but in a real program one would pick more descriptive names.) The 'ON...EXEC' statement is what is called a 'switch' statement, which switches control to the corresponding procedure. Error handling is achieved automatically, ince anything but a 'legal' keypress is just ignored. Many types of programs could be run by this loop. The simplification is obtained by the fact that we have gone from the task of writing one large program to that of writing four smaller, simpler programs; MENU, PROC1, etc., each of which would be broken down further. Clarity is obtained because each module is separate (although they can all use the common, or global, variables) and performs a single task which has been separated from the program logic. Some say that, if a module is too long to be printed on one page it should be broken down further, but that is not a hard-and-fast rule. But it is certainly easier to follow what a program is doing if one does not have to jump all over the listing, following a bunch of GOTOs. Modification is made easier because the processes have been separated from the program logic, and it is easy to see where to insert a change. For example; suppose we decided to add a fourth operation to the program. All we would have to do is: 1) Write the procedure for the new operation and add it to the end of the program, 2) change MENU to print the new choice on the menu screen, and 3) add the procedure name, PROC4 say, to the ON...EXEC statement. Easily done, even if done months or years after writing the original program. To illustrate portability, let us consider how one would translate the very same program into another structured language, in this case ACTION! DO MENU() K=GETD(7) KEY==-48 IF KEY=0 THEN EXIT ELSEIF KEY=1 THEN PROC1() ELSEIF KEY=2 THEN PROC2() ELSEIF KEY=3 THEN PROC3() FI OD RETURN Looks very similiar, doesn't it? Besides the changes in syntax, most of which could be changed in a text editor using its 'global search and replace' function, the only major change required is due to the fact that ACTION! doesn't have a 'switch' statement. However, the same thing is accomplished by the IF...ELSEIF...FI statements. (C, on the other hand, DOES have a 'switch' statement, called 'switch'. The same program in C would also be very similiar.) Portability is an important concern to the Atari 8-bit programmer these days, following the demise of almost all our 8-bit magazines. One must rely for information on algorithms upon magazines and books written for the general computer user, and such algorithms are usually printed in a structured language, such as Pascal, C, or a C-like pseudo-code. It is a great help if one is able to translate these algorithms into our own language. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ To sign up for DELPHI service, call (with modem) (800) 695-4002. Upon connection, hit <return> once or twice. At Password: type ZNET and hit <return>. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ To sign up for GEnie service call (with modem) (800) 638-8369. Upon connection type HHH and hit <return>. Wait for the U#= prompt and type XTX99436,GEnie and hit <return>. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ To sign up for CompuServe service call (with phone) (800) 848-8199. Ask for operator #198. You will be promptly sent a $15.00 free membership kit. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Z*Net International Atari Online Magazine is a weekly publication covering the Atari and related computer community. Material published in this edition may be reprinted under the following terms only. All articles must remain unedited and include the issue number and author at the top of each article reprinted. Reprint permission granted, unless otherwise noted, to registered Atari user groups and not for profit publications. Opinions present herein are those of the individual authors and does not necessarily reflect those of the staff. This publication is not affiliated with the Atari Corporation. Z*Net, Z*Net News Service, Z*Net International, Rovac, Z*Net Atari Online and Z*Net Publishing are copyright (c)1985-1992, Syndicate Publishing, Rovac Industries Incorporated, Post Office Box 59, Middlesex, New Jersey, 08846-0059, Voice: (908) 968-2024, BBS: (908) 968-8148, (510) 373-6792. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Z*NET: Atari Online Magazine Z*Magazine Issue #200 Copyright (c)1992, Rovac Industries, Inc... ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
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