ST Report: 28-Dec-90 #652

From: Bruce D. Nelson (aj434@cleveland.Freenet.Edu)
Date: 01/17/91-08:42:27 PM Z

From: aj434@cleveland.Freenet.Edu (Bruce D. Nelson)
Subject: ST Report: 28-Dec-90  #652
Date: Thu Jan 17 20:42:27 1991

                  *---== ST REPORT ONLINE MAGAZINE ==---*
                  "The Original 16/32bit Online Magazine"
                            STR Publishing Inc.

 December 28, 1990                                                  No.6.52

                         STReport Online Magazine?
                          Post Office Box   6672
                          Jacksonville,  Florida
                               32205 ~ 6672

                               R.F. Mariano
                            Publisher - Editor
                   Voice: 904-783-3319  10 AM - 4 PM EST
                 BBS:  904-786-4176  USR/HST DUAL STANDARD
                    FAX: 904-783-3319 12 AM - 6 AM EST

  **  Fnet Node 350 * FidoNet Node 1:112/35 * NeST Node 90:19/350.0  **
               STR'S privately owned & operated support BBS
              carries ALL issues of STReport Online Magazine
       carrying STReport Online Magazine for their user's enjoyment

 > 12/28/90: STReport? #6.52  The Original 16/32 bit Online Magazine!
     - The Editor's Desk      - CPU REPORT        - CPU Insights
     - Windows Overview       - Multi-Tasking!    - After the ST
     - ADSpeed Review         - PORTFOLIO NEWS    - STR Confidential

                    * DEALERS TO LOSE AUTHORIZATION! *
                          * NEW STACY IN WORKS! *

                         ST REPORT ONLINE MAGAZINE?
                     The _Number One_ Online Magazine
                              -* FEATURING *-
                "Accurate UP-TO-DATE News and Information"
       Current Events, Original Articles, Hot Tips, and Information
             Hardware - Software - Corporate - R & D - Imports
 STReport's  support  BBS,  NODE  #  350 invites systems using Forem ST and
 Turbo Board BBS to participate in the Fido/F-Net  Mail Network.   Or, call
 Node 350  direct at  904-786-4176, and  enjoy the excitement of exchanging
 information relative to the Atari ST  computer arena  through an excellent
 International ST Mail Network.  All registered F-NET - Crossnet SysOps are
 welcome to join the STReport Crossnet Conference.  The Crossnet Conference
 Code  is  #34813,  and  the  "Lead  Node"  is # 350.  All systems are most
 welcome to actively participate.  Support Atari Computers;  Join Today!

 > The Editor's Podium?

     Atari is alive and well, the market action speaks for itself.  The new
 products have created a flurry of interest along with a respectable amount
 of used equipment being for sale.  Sure,  some folks  are headed  in other
 directions,  but  at  the  same  time  there are many who are upgrading to
 either the Mega STe or the TT030.  The software authors are sure to see an
 surge of  sales from  the new  owners of  the used gear and then, once the
 Mega STe hits the dealer's shelves.... up and away we go!

     On another note, we find that  the dumb  rumors circulating throughout
 the Atari  community have reached a new low...  Elsewhere in this issue we
 address the 'nasty rumor' and 'old  rumor' departments.   For  now, please
 allow me  on behalf of our entire staff and its newest member Brad Martin,
 to wish everyone a....

     Happy New Year!

                    Have a Healthy and Prosperous NEW YEAR!

                          DON'T DRINK AND DRIVE!



                          FOR A LIMITED TIME ONLY


                              to the Readers of;

                         STREPORT ONLINE MAGAZINE?
                  "The Original 16/32bit Online Magazine"

                         NEW USERS; SIGN UP TODAY!

               CALL: 1-800-848-8199 .. Ask for operator 198

                 You will receive your complimentary time
                       be online in no time at all!

                 WHAT'S NEW IN THE ATARI FORUMS (Dec. 28)


 Miguel  R.  Silva  has  uploaded  the  Commodore  64 Emulator from Germany
 (written in 1987).   Please see  file C64.PRG  in LIBRARY  1 of  the Atari
 Productivity Forum (GO ATARIPRO).


 Version 1.60A of Jim Ness' popular QuickCIS program is available in

 LIBRARY 1  of the  Atari Productivity  Forum as QWKCIS.ARC.  QuickCIS is a
 CompuServe navigator.  It  will automatically  call, capture  email, visit
 up to  6 forums,  and log  off.  While in forums, it can capture messages,
 post your own messages, and download chosen files from forum libraries.


 An up-to-date listing  of  sources  for  Atari  software  and  hardware is
 available courtesy  of ST  REPORT as  LIST.TXT in  LIBRARY 1  of the Atari
 Arts Forum (GO ATARIARTS).


 DCDAUT.ARC is now available in LIBRARY 13 of  the Atari  Vendors Forum (GO
 ATARIVEN)  courtesy  of  Double  Click  Software.    DC  DESKTOP AUTO is a
 SIGNIFICANT enhancement for the DC  Desktop!    DC  DESKTOP  AUTO SELECTOR
 v1.0 allows  you to  organize your  DC Desktop bootup.  Simply copy all of
 your  DC  Desktop  programs  from  the  AUTO  folder  to  the  DC  Desktop
 Information directory.   When  DCD AUTO runs from the AUTO folder, you get
 a graphical interface to choose programs, presets, bootup  resolution, and

 ISD Marketing  has uploaded  the text of their latest customer mail out to
 registered  Calamus  owners  containing  some  limited   time  offers  and
 information  on  the  status  of  Calamus  SL.  See the file CUSUPD.TXT in
 LIBRARY 17 of the Atari Vendors Forum (GO ATARIVEN).




   Issue # 97

 by Michael Arthur



 Part II

       In Part I of this series,  we  explored  the  various  tasks  that a
 multitasking OS  performs, while showing some aspects of the many possible
 capabilities of  multitasking systems.   In  this segment,  let us explore
 some of  the ways  that multitasking  can be implemented, and show some of
 the extra features  in  some  systems  that  help  make  multitasking more

       The key component in a multitasking system is the way it divides the
 computer's CPU time between the tasks currently running on it.  One aspect
 of this, the various functions and jobs of a multitasking system, has been
 discussed.  Now I will explore the methods  that multitasking  systems use
 to perform  their tasks.   Even though there are many ways of distributing
 CPU time between all running processes, there are two distinct  methods of
 doing this:  Cooperative scheduling, and preemptive scheduling.

                         Cooperative Multitasking

       In  cooperative  (or  nonpreemptive)  scheduling,  it  is  the tasks
 running on the system, not the  OS itself,  that control  the multitasking
 process.   When a task is given the CPU, it gains sole usage of the system
 until it decides to relinquish control to another task. There are a couple
 of  advantages  to  this  method.   An application can complete some vital
 tasks immediately, then allow the others to run  in the  background, and a
 program in a cooperative system can do certain things (such as controlling
 events and peripherals that function in  real-time) more  efficiently than
 otherwise  possible  in  a  multitasking  system.    But  there  are  many
 disadvantages to cooperative scheduling, which have kept this  system from
 being used as widely as preemptive multitasking.

      For one  thing, cooperative  scheduling requires that all programs be
 VERY well behaved.  If a task holds up the  CPU for  too long,  even while
 doing an  important job, response time will suffer greatly.  But even more
 seriously, if a task  doesn't relinquish  control of  the CPU  or a system
 resource (due to a software bug), other programs that need those resources
 won't be able to function, causing a situation, called deadlock, which can
 halt those tasks, or even crash the multitasking system itself.

                          Preemptive Multitasking

       But while  cooperative scheduling  does not  seem like multitasking,
 at least in the standard sense, preemptive scheduling  closely follows the
 strict definition  of multitasking.  In this type of system, a task is not
 guaranteed sole usage of the CPU for a certain amount of time, but rather,
 can lose  it at any time, so another task can run.  Because a running task
 doesn't need to know this is occurring, and since a multitasking system is
 supposed to  do its job as transparently as possible, the OS usually makes
 each individual task think it is the only one using the system.   Although
 there are many ways of implementing preemptive schedulers, practically all
 of them  are  based  on  two  schemes:    round-robin,  and priority-based

       A round-robin  scheduler simply  makes the  tasks take turns, giving
 each task an equal  amount of  CPU time  in which  to run.   This  type of
 scheduler is  VERY easy  to implement,  and guarantees that all tasks will
 get a certain amount of CPU time.  But often programs running  on a system
 do not  need the  same amount of CPU time at all instances (such as a word
 processor and a spreadsheet), and giving CPU time to tasks that don't need
 it is NOT efficient at all.

       Priority-based  schedulers  help  to  solve  this  dilemma.  In this
 situation, each program is given a  priority level,  according to  how CPU
 intensive (like a spreadsheet recalculation) or time critical (like a file
 transfer from a BBS) a task is, or how quickly it interacts  with the user
 (such as  a game,  or a  program in  the foreground).   The scheduler then
 distributes CPU time to each task according to how high its priority level
 is, and the higher the priority level, the more CPU time a particular task

       For example, if task A has a higher priority level than task B, then
 task A will get the CPU before B, and will be able to use it for a greater
 amount of time.  But if both tasks have an equal priority  level, then the
 system doles out CPU time in a round-robin fashion.  Priority levels apply
 to all aspects of system operation, so if tasks A and B  ask for  use of a
 system resource, such as a printer, and task A has a higher priority level
 than B, task A would get that system resource (in this case,  the printer)
 first.   By the  way, since the amount of CPU time needed by a program can
 vary, depending on the type of  task it  is performing,  the scheduler can
 also adjust the priority level of a program as needed.

       There  are  MANY  advantages  to  preemptive  scheduling, which have
 caused it to become standard procedure for most multitasking systems.  Not
 only do preemptive systems have better tolerance of errors and ill-behaved
 programs than cooperative ones, as well  as being  less fragile,  but many
 types of  interprocess communication  can only  be used with it.  The main
 disadvantage to preemptive schedulers as compared  to cooperative  ones is
 that they are a LOT harder to implement than cooperative schedulers. Also,
 they cannot know when is the optimal time for a task to relinquish the CPU
 as only  the task  itself could have this information.  This often results
 in  the  program  completing  its  tasks  less  efficiently  than  with  a
 cooperative multitasker.   Priority-based  schedulers help to provide this
 "intelligent" switching for preemptive systems, though....

                        Problems, Problems, Problems

       Although multitasking is  a  very  useful,  versatile,  and powerful
 tool,  with  many  integrated  ways  of  preventing errors from occurring,
 problems inevitably arise, even in the best systems.  We all know  that in
 singletasking systems, there is always a chance that it will crash, at one
 point or another, as  the job  of an  operating system  isn't easy  in the
 first place.   But  with the added strain of distributing system resources
 and CPU time between the many  tasks that  might be  running, managing any
 interprocess communications between those tasks, and making sure that both
 occur as efficiently as possible, the problems that come with  an ordinary
 operating system  quickly multiply.   Many of the utilities now associated
 with multitasking systems, such  as virtual  memory and  Memory Management
 Units (MMU's),  actually arose to solve these problems.  Even though there
 are an infinite amount  of problems  waiting to  happen in  a multitasking
 system, here are some of the most prevalent:

     In  a  multitasking  operating  system,  whether  it be cooperative or
 preemptive, tasks always compete for  access  to  system  resources.   For
 Disk Access,  this problem  can be easily solved, but for other resources,
 such as printers or modems, multitaskers usually give one task sole access
 to a  resource, forcing  the other  tasks that need it to wait until it is
 finished using it.    Since  these  other  tasks  often  are  also holding
 resources, which are also locked up until the task can continue operation,
 this can cause quite a traffic jam, as all tasks  slow to  a halt  as they
 wait for the others to relinquish their resources.  This complex situation
 is called deadlock.

       For instance, let's say that Task A is using System Resource 1 to do
 its work,  while Task  B is  using Resource  2 to do its work.  So that no
 other task can interfere with its work, Task A has  a lock  on Resource 1,
 while Task  B has  a lock  on Resource  2.   Now suppose that Task A needs
 Resource 2 to complete its task,  while Task  B needs  Resource 1  for its
 duties.   Since Task  A cannot  run until  Task B gives up Resource 2, and
 Task B cannot run until Task A gives up Resource  1, and  since both won't
 give up  their resources,  neither can  proceed.  As you can see, deadlock
 only happens when a task is allowed  to  hold  onto  resources  it  is not
 using at the time, so it would seem simple to make all tasks give up their
 resources after their CPU time is up.  But if that resource  happens to be
 a printer,  and two  tasks, a word processor and a spreadsheet, are trying
 to print on the same printer, if you allow BOTH  of them  to print  at the
 same time....

       So  since  it  is  necessary  in  some  instances  to allow tasks to
 monopolize system resources, then deadlock is not always  preventable.  In
 fact, since  the overhead involved in making an operating system that made
 sure that deadlock never occured (meaning that it  would have  to be prep-
 ared for ANY eventuality that could happen in multitasking systems), would
 be ENORMOUS, most multitaskers (including Unix)  are able  to kill  off as
 many tasks  as necessary  to stop  deadlock.   Since one  of the "unlucky"
 tasks could be something that was VERY important,  like your  1040 IRS Tax
 Form, this  is not always preferable.  Barring this, the multitasker would
 then stop everything and do nothing.  Called a system crash, all computers
 have special  hardware to  handle this situation, called the reset button-

 Busy Waiting:

     This happens when one task is using a system resource by itself (thro-
 ugh its  having higher  priority or  using a  semaphore), and another task
 cannot proceed without having access to  the resource.   The  task then is
 forced to  waste CPU  time waiting to have access to that system resource.
 Since this tends to  halt system  performance (especially  if the  task is
 also monopolizing a system resource, which would then result in deadlock),
 it is considered one of the worst things that a  multitasker can  do.  But
 interestingly, Busy  Waiting is  sometimes used to avoid or cure deadlock,
 by simply making task B wait  until task  A is  finished and  gives up the
 system resource, before it can use the system.

 Memory Management:

     There are  MANY problems  that often  emerge in this subject.  One is,
 simply enough, running out of memory.  One popular way  to conserve memory
 is to  have built-in  system libraries, that programmers can use for their
 applications.  But when there are just so  many programs  runnin that they
 all won't  fit in memory, multitasking systems often use virtual memory to
 cram them in.

       Virtual memory simply uses all available Disk Space  (Floppy or Hard
 Disk) as  memory, saving  a portion  of a task to disk that is now in RAM,
 but is not being used by  any program  running on  the system,  and later,
 when there is enough memory to hold the data segment (or if the task needs
 to use the data segment), loading it back into memory.  In  a multitasking
 system this  is used  to swap portions of programs in and out of memory as
 they need them.  So if the system was using Virtual Memory, and Task A had
 a segment  of itself  on disk  while Task  B was running, then when Task A
 receives use of the CPU, if it needs that segment to run,  then the system
 would first  save a segment of Task B that hadn't been used for a while to
 disk, and then load the segment needed by Task A into memory.  But Virtual
 memory can  be used,  not only  to let programs use more data that can fit
 into real memory (like editing a text file that won't  fit into  memory by
 saving parts  of it  to a  disk file),  but can also be implemented in or-
 dinary singletasking systems.

       There are dangers to using Virtual  Memory, though.   Virtual memory
 works fine when the segments that are saved onto disk are relatively small
 and mostly unused, but if the system loads too great  a segment  of a task
 into memory,  then the  system spends  a long time loading and saving data
 segments to/from disk so to make  enough room  when a  task loads  in that
 segment.   If the system loads too little a segment of the task in memory,
 though, then it hasn't saved enough memory for another task.  Also, if all
 the data  segments in  memory are  being used  frequently, then the system
 thrashes, or spends so much time swapping segments to and from memory that
 little real work is accomplished.  Both of these cases cause deadlock, and
 to stop them one either has to quit running a  program that  is in memory,
 so as  to make  room for  other tasks to run in, or to simply turn off the
 computer and start over again.

 Memory Protection:

     Even though running out of memory  IS a  real problem  in multitasking
 systems, almost  everyone would  agree that  memory management is far more
 serious.  The function of most memory managers, whether they  are in soft-
 ware or hardware, is to prevent system memory from being fragmented.  This
 occurs when, after the system  has  done  several  memory  allocations and
 deallocations  in  its  normal  memory  handling  duties, free RAM becomes
 divided into many small fragments  spread  throughout  its  address space,
 which  cannot  be  used  by  the  system.    If  enough  free  RAM becomes
 fragmented, the system starts to lose large amounts of memory.

       Since this also  happens  in  singletasking  operating  systems, all
 operating systems  perform a technique called garbage collection, in which
 all of this fragmented memory is collected, organized,  and put  back into
 the system's main RAM.  Even though this might sound simple, the processes
 by which it gets this lost memory are VERY complicated.   And  even though
 software memory management CAN get the job done in most cases, it often is
 inefficient, and sometimes cannot properly handle its job.

       And as hardware  is  often  more  efficient,  less  troublesome, and
 better suited at this type of work than software, chips that could perform
 memory management functions started to appear.   These  processors, called
 Memory Management  Units (or  MMU's), are specifically made to handle gar-
 bage collection and memory  management functions,  so an  operating system
 doesn't have  to do  them.   Another task that MMU's often perform for the
 operating system is memory protection, both  preventing tasks  from having
 access to  system memory  that hasn't been allocated to them, or from dis-
 turbing other tasks or resources when  they  crash,  so  the  whole system
 doesn't crash just because of one faulty program.

        In  this  series,  CPU  Report  has  investigated  the  subject  of
 multitasking, in an attempt  to provide  a suitable  understanding of this
 complex issue.   While  this was not meant to be the "definitive" guide to
 multitasking, as great stacks of books have been  written on  the subject,
 it has  tried to show many of the pertinent issues involved in this topic,
 which is at the forefront of sophisticated microcomputer technology.


                    :HOW TO GET YOUR OWN GENIE ACCOUNT:

      To sign up for GEnie service: Call: (with modem) 800-638-8369.

               Upon connection type HHH (RETURN after that).
                         Wait for the U#= prompt.

                 Type: XTX99587,CPUREPT then, hit RETURN.

                       **** SIGN UP FEE WAIVED ****

           The system will now prompt you for your information.

               -> NOW!  GENIE STAR SERVICE IS IN EFFECT!! <-


 > The Future of the ST STR Feature?                " man's opinion"

                          LIFE AFTER THE ATARI ST

 Part 3

 by Darek Mihocka,
 President, Branch Always Software

     In this week's discussion I'll discuss Window 3.0.  I'm sure everybody
 reading this  has heard  of Windows,  but I'll bet a good many of you have
 never actually sat down to use it and aren't completely  familiar with it.
 I know  from experience that other ST users that I've demonstrated Windows
 to sort of look at me funny when I explain  certain features,  or apparent
 lack of  features.   Imagine an  environment that  has no  concept of desk
 accessories or AUTO folders, and can run completely  without a  mouse, and
 contains windows  within windows!   That's  Windows 3.0!   It sounds a lot
 different than GEM, but it doesn't have to be.  Confused? Let's start from
 the beginning, keeping in mind last week's discussion about multitasking.

     What is Windows?  Is it an operating system, or a shell, or what?  The
 word that I think best describes it is that it is an environment.  Make no
 mistakes  about  it  -  when  you're  running Windows, MS-DOS is still the
 installed operating system.  Yes, good old yucky  MS-DOS (or  MeSsy-DOS as
 some people refer to it).  Little do people realize how similar MS-DOS and
 TOS are, even to the  point  of  having  many  identical  operating system
 functions. But that's for another time.

     Windows extends  MS-DOS by adding new functions to it.  Graphics func-
 tions are obviously those included, but  there are  also memory management
 and other  functions added.   MS-DOS  still sticks  around to provide disk
 support, and Windows takes care of everything else.  Unlike  OS/2, Windows
 is not  a complete  operating system,  although the two are similar.  That
 too is for another time.

     Through its 3 versions,  Windows has  gone through  a lot  of changes.
 However, it  has the  advantage of having just been recently updated (Win-
 dows 3.0) and it shares many of the  great features  of other environments
 with very  few of  the drawbacks.   In  fact, because it is sort of like a
 superset of GEM, it can be made to look like the GEM desktop and used like
 the  GEM  desktop.    Windows  offers  a lot of extra power, but if you're
 uncomfortable with it in the beginning, you can just use what you need.

     Let's try to go through a typical Windows session here on my computer.
 I power up the computer and a few seconds later the hard disk starts going
 wild.  First there is the Windows logo  on the  screen for  a few seconds.
 Then the  desktop turns  green and a single icon labeled "Program Manager"
 shows up in the bottom left corner of the screen and there is the familiar
 arrow in  the middle  of the  screen indicating I'm using a mouse.  That's
 the desktop?  No menu bar?  No disk icons?   WHAT'S  WRONG WITH  THIS PIC-

     To  understand  that,  you  have  to remember that the Program Manager
 itself is just another program.  Similarly on GEM, the desktop that we see
 is not  really GEM.  It uses GEM, but the desktop is just another program.
 On the ST it can be replaced by other desktops  (or "shells"  like Neodesk
 and DC  Desktop) and  on Windows  the Program Manager can be replaced too.
 Windows all by itself just displays a green screen and a mouse pointer!

     "So what's with the icon and where is  the menu  bar?", you  ask.  The
 answer to  this question is one of the fundamental differences between GEM
 and Windows.  If  you understand  this, everything  else makes  sense!  So
 let's start slowly and explain this slowly.

     First, how does GEM run programs?  Well, the desktop comes up and puts
 up the menu bar, and some disk windows.  When you double click on some GEM
 program and  run it,  the desktop goes away, a new menu bar comes up and a
 desktop is drawn with some other windows.  To run another GEM program, you
 have exit  this program,  go back  to the  desktop, and  double click some
 other program. And so on and so on. Blah. Blah. Blah.

     Windows is  multitasking.   But if  Windows was  implemented like GEM,
 then it  wouldn't really  be multitasking,  because you could only run one
 program at a time.  So the big $64 question was how to make  Windows so as
 to allow you to run more than one program at a time.

     The solution  was to  treat each  program's screen (menu bar, desktop,
 and windows) as a window itself on  a  much  larger  desktop.    The "much
 larger desktop"  itself is  the big empty green desktop that comes up when
 you first run Windows.

     So there are two kinds of windows (although they look  virtually iden-
 tical) -  application windows and document windows.  An application window
 is the window that a program (also called  an "application")  gets when it
 runs.   It contains the program's menu bar, slider bars, and the program's
 output.  Then within the application  window, there  are document windows,
 which are  always inside the application window, and may contain their own
 slider bars but no menu bars.

     Think of it like this.  When you run, say, First Word on GEM, there is
 a menu  bar at  the top of the screen, and each time you open a text file,
 another window opens on the screen  containing the  contents of  that text
 file.   That is a document window.  The entire ST screen can be thought of
 as an application window.  Unfortunately, with GEM you can't just magical-
 ly drag  or re-size the application window to reveal, say, the GEM desktop
 underneath.  It's there, but you just can't get to it unless you close the
 entire First Word application window (i.e. exit).

     With Windows, any program's application window can be resized.  It can
 be maximized to use up the entire screen, and that closely resembles using
 GEM. You can simply configure all your programs to run full screen and not
 worry about multitasking or application windows  and our  discussion would
 stop here.  But wait!  There's more.

     You can  also "minimize"  an application window and what appears is an
 icon. When you minimize an application  window you  do so  because you are
 currently not using that application, and it leaves room on the screen for
 other applications. The application is actually still running, but probab-
 ly just  waiting for you to do something, like typing in a key. My Program
 Manager comes up minimized, which explains the icon.

     I prefer to not run applications maximized, so when I  double click on
 the  Program  Manager,  it  just  draws  a window that is about 1/4 of the
 screen in size.  Within the  Program Manager  are smaller  windows.  These
 are the  document windows.   Each such window has some icons, representing
 the various programs on my hard disk, and  they are  grouped into document
 windows by  category: Games, Utilities, Excel, etc.  Also, Windows can put
 a minimized icon on the screen for any application (like  what I  did with
 the Program  Manager) so you can just run a program by double clicking its
 icon on the desktop.

     If I click on, say, the Tetris icon, it loads  and runs  Tetris.  What
 happens?   Does the  screen clear? No.  Tetris simply opens up an applica-
 tion window on top of the Program Manager window.  Tetris has its own menu
 bar within this window, to select such things as game level and to exit.

     So how  do I now go back to the Program Manager?  One way you to it is
 to exit Tetris by either clicking  in the  top left  corner of  the Tetris
 window or by selecting Exit from the Tetris menu bar.  The other way is to
 grab the mouse and  click on  the Program  Manager window  that is peeking
 through from  behind the  Tetris window.  When I do that, the Program Man-
 ager window redraws on top of  the Tetris  window.   Wow -  a task switch.

     But wait!   The  Tetris game  is still  playing!  I can see the bricks
 falling down behind the Program Manager.  That's because Windows is multi-
 tasking and  both Tetris and Program Manager are running at the same time!
 Time for another task switch.  I click on the Tetris window again, press P
 for pause, and then switch back to the Program Manager.

     That was  just a  very simple  example of  running two programs simul-
 taneously.  With Windows, you can open as many application  windows as you
 wish.   One window  can run  a word  processor, one can run a spreadsheet,
 another can run a terminal program,  another can  run a  game, and another
 can run the file manager, and so on.

     Many of  you will  be asking, "WHY DO I NEED MULTITASKING?????".  Good
 question, because like all goodies in life, you don't really need it.  You
 could still  use your  computer without it, but then again, you could also
 live without GEM. Why not just  go back  to the  good old  days of command
 lines and  typing this  and typing  that and function key this and control
 key that?  We could, but we don't want to.   GEM  is more  convenient.  It
 allows us  to do with the mouse what takes many keystrokes.  It saves time
 and makes the computer more fun.  In the same way, multitasking is useful,
 it is  convenient and  time-saving, and  it is  fun to use.  Let me give a
 more complex example.

     Suppose I want to  write a  text file,  oh, say,  an article  on using
 Windows.  I'm going to use Word 5.0 for this, because I happen to like the
 character based version of Word.  Oh oh.  I'm going to  have to  exit Win-
 dows now,  no?   Wrong.  Windows has its own ways of dealing with non-Win-
 dows applications.  When I click on the Word icon in the  Program Manager,
 the screen  goes entirely  black, and  Word 5.0 shows up.  I can now start
 typing full screen in 80 columns and 25 lines.  How do I task switch now?

     Windows provides a few keyboard shortcuts  for task  switching.   If I
 press the  Control key  and then  the Escape  key, it tells Windows that I
 want to switch to another task.  Suddenly I'm back in the  Windows desktop
 with Tetris and Program Manager and there is a dialog box in the middle of
 the screen titled "Task List".  Listed in  the box,  surprise surprise, is
 Program Manager, Tetris, and Word.  Then I simply click on the name of the
 program I want to  switch to.   So  this way,  an unlimited  number of DOS
 based programs can run under Windows!

     Here's the  really cool  part.  Windows can make a non-Windows program
 run inside of a window on the Windows desktop!  How?   The 80386  chip has
 multitasking built  right into  it.   It has a feature called virtual mode
 which allows  it to  emulate a  1 megabyte  8086 processor  (or several or
 them).   Each of  these emulated  processors can run a DOS program and the
 program will think that it is running on a 640K  DOS machine  without Win-
 dows.   When a program running in virtual mode tries to write something to
 the screen, it is actually writing into this 1 megabyte of virtual machine
 memory, not  the real  screen memory  showing the Windows desktop.  When I
 press Control and Esc to task  switch, Windows  copies the  virtual screen
 memory to  the real  screen memory  and so  Word can run full screen under
 Windows.  But If I press Alt and  Return, Windows  now copies  this screen
 memory into  a Window on the desktop, and presto!  Word now runs in a win-
 dow.  Word can run like this, as  can Lotus  1-2-3, the  DOS command line,
 and thousands  of other  DOS programs.   Windows automatically updates the
 window on the screen whenever the application updates its virtual screen.

     Right now as I'm editing full screen I'd like to  log into  the weekly
 Thursday night  conference on  Compuserve.   What should  I do?  My Tetris
 game isn't finished, nor is this article.  First, I press Alt  and Return.
 Now what  I see  is the  Word window  on the Windows desktop taking up ap-
 proximately 1/3 of the screen.  That's because at a resolution of 800x600,
 an 80  column by  25 line screen is quite small.  I now pop up the Program
 Manager and run WinTerm, a terminal program that  comes bundled  with Win-
 dows 3.  I set an appropriate font and re-size the terminal window so that
 both Word and WinTerm are displaying 80 columns of 25  lines in  two sepa-
 rate windows.   Program  Manager and  Tetris are minimized as icons at the
 bottom of the screen.

     Now while I'm participating in the conference, I can pop  into Word at
 any time  and jot  down ideas or edit this document.  To keep track of how
 long I'm in conference, I pop into Program Manager again and run the Clock
 program.   This simply  displays the current time inside a window. I mini-
 mize Clock  to an  icon, and  cool enough,  the icon  keeps displaying the
 current time.  No need for corner clocks!

     As it  is now,  I am running 5 different programs under Windows. All 5
 are running concurrently (i.e. at the same time) and by  clicking from one
 window to  another with  the mouse (or using the Task Switcher) I can type
 into the various programs.

     Windows doesn't have desk  accessories, because  there is  no need for
 desk accessories!   If  you wish  to run the control panel, task switch to
 the Program Manager at any time  from  any  program  and  run  the control
 panel.   If you wish to perform file operations, just run the File Manager
 (Windows equivalent  of the  GEM or  Mac desktop).   There  are no worries
 about running out of the 6 desk accessory slots, or running out of memory.

     Memory?   Did I  say memory?  Yes, Windows has virtual memory support.
 What this means is that Windows applications can  use more  memory than is
 available in  the computer.   I  have 4 megabytes, but that's nowhere near
 enough memory to do something silly like fill  up all  16384 rows  and 256
 columns  of  an  Excel  spreadsheet  with formulas.  That requires over 10
 megabytes of memory, yet it can be done!

     The way that virtual memory works is that whenever a  program tries to
 allocate memory  that doesn't  exist, Windows  creates a  file on the hard
 disk (called the "swap file") and  uses that  disk space  to emulate extra
 memory.   Windows keeps track of what memory is being used and what isn't.
 If I'm in my Excel spreadsheet  gobbling up  memory, Windows  will realize
 that I'm  not using  Tetris, and will copy out parts of Tetris's memory to
 the swap file to make room for the spreadsheet.  When the spreadsheet eats
 up all 4 megabytes of my computer's memory, Windows will copy out parts of
 the spreadsheet itself to the hard disk to  make room  for new spreadsheet
 cells.   When a  program then  tries to  access some  memory that has been
 copied to disk, "swapped out", Windows then copies  out some  other unused
 piece of memory and swaps in what it needs.

     Swapping sounds  like a  lot of  trouble, but it is the way many other
 operating systems work too, from UNIX  to OS/2.  And the  beauty of  it is
 that the  memory manager  of Windows  takes care of everything.  A program
 running under Windows doesn't even know  that parts  of it  may be swapped
 out to  disk.   There is  no 640K memory limit like with DOS or 4 megabyte
 limit like on the ST.

     Unfortunately for use ST  users, the  68000 chip  really can't support
 task switching or virtual memory the way Windows does with the 80386.  The
 68030 can, and it  is disappointing  to see  that the  TT operating system
 still  uses  the  same  old  crippling  GEM instead of a real multitasking
 operating system.

     Even the Macintosh will soon be  able to  support virtual  memory with
 the new  System 7.0  and minor hardware upgrade.  The Mac already supports
 task switching with Multifinder (which is similar to Revolver on  the ST),
 although it has some limitations compared to Windows.

     Windows just  has a  lot of other cool features I didn't even touch on
 yet.  For example, it uses a proportional  font to  display menu  bars and
 dialog  boxes.    A  proportional  font  just looks nicer than the regular
 monospaced font most computers use.

     Speaking of fonts, there is a major difference between the way Windows
 handles fonts and printer drivers and the way the GEM does.  Windows main-
 tains all the fonts and printer drivers itself.   One  of the  features of
 the control panel is the ability to install and de-install fonts.  All the
 fonts are listed in  dialog box,  and when  you click  on a  font name, it
 actually displays a font sample on the screen, so that you can see exactly
 how the font will look and how big it will be.  Similarly, printers can be
 installed and  de-installed by  changing printer  drivers from the control
 panel in the same easy way.  There is only one set  of font  files and one
 set of printer driver files, which can be used by any Windows application.

     Most GEM  programs on  the other  hand use custom printer drivers, and
 some use custom fonts.  A printer driver for say,  Word Perfect,  will not
 work with  DEGAS or  First Word.   Or a font used with DEGAS will not work
 with Calamus.  It's a free for all when it comes to fonts and it is  a big
 mess.   Yes, Atari  did release  GDOS which  sort of resembles the Windows
 model, but GDOS was released too late to be accepted or even understood by
 many users and developers.

     Windows applications  have a  common look and feel, much like applica-
 tions on the Macintosh.   This  is because  IBM bundles  a book  with each
 Windows Software Development Kit describing in detail how the Windows (and
 OS/2) user interfaces are  to look  and feel.   What  keys to  what.  What
 mouse actions  do what.   What windows parts to what. The results are that
 when you learn one Windows program, you can  easily learn  another because
 they are all written to conform to the same user interface standards.

     Windows has  a built-in  clipboard that supports text, graphics, meta-
 files, and other formats.   This  allows Windows  and non-Windows applica-
 tions to  share data.   For  example, one word processor can exchange for-
 matted text with another through a simple Cut and Paste operation, even if
 the two  word processors  can't read  each other's files.  A paint program
 can store a graphics  image into  the clipboard  which can  then be pasted
 into a word processor.

     Windows allows  dialog boxes  to have titles and be dragged, just like
 ordinary windows.  If a dialog box pops up and it is covering up a part of
 the screen  you need to answer the question in the dialog box, then simply
 drag the dialog box to the side.

     The Windows clipboard has other features such as  installing a desktop
 pattern or  desktop picture,  changing screen colors, setting mouse accel-
 eration and swapping the mouse buttons for left-handed people, setting the
 serial and parallel ports, and setting the keyboard repeat rate.

     Windows comes  bundled with  a word  processor, file manager, terminal
 emulation software,  calculator utility,  clock, paint  program, and other
 useful software  as well  as fonts  and background pictures.  A bare bones
 computer with only DOS and Windows  installed can  be used  for productive
 work right away.

     Windows allows you to re-size windows by clicking anywhere on the edge
 of the window and  dragging.   For example,  you can  click on  the bottom
 right corner  of a  window to re-size it in much the same way as on GEM or
 the Mac, but you can also click on, say, the left edge  of the  window and
 re-size it horizontally.

     Windows allows  you to  task switch at almost any time.  Let's say you
 are trying to save a text file from a word processor and the disk is full.
 On GEM, if you're not using Universal Item Selector, you'd be out of luck.
 On Windows, simply task switch to the File  Manager and  format a  disk or
 delete files then task switch back to the word processor.

     Now  that  I've  covered  the  basic list of features of Windows, I'll
 answer some of the questions and complaints I know will be raised for this
 discussion and also from last week.

     Q: Windows is a memory hog. Do I need tons of memory?

     A:  No.  Windows  will  run  just  fine with one megabyte of RAM. Even
 without virtual memory enabled, 1 megabyte will allow  you to  run several
 Windows applications  at once.   The  advantage of having more RAM is that
 the prospect of having to start swapping to disk is  less and  so programs
 will run  at maximum  speed.   Memory is  cheap, and  the price difference
 between one megabyte and four megabytes is too  small to  even bother with
 buying only one megabyte.

     Q: Windows is hard to install.

     A: Simply  place the  Setup disk in your floppy disk drive and run the
 setup program. Insert a new disk when prompted.  The whole procedure takes
 about 5 minutes.  If those instructions are too hard to follow, then I can
 see where there would be a problem.

     Q: GEM is easy and fun to use.   I  don't need  multitasking.   I have
 Hotwire and  Neodesk and  DC Desktop and Universal Item Selector and Quick
 ST II and Multidesk and GDOS and other AUTO folder stuff.

     A: GEM is fun?  Baloney.  First of all, you can't appreciate multitas-
 king until  you try  it.   Everything has a learning curve, and spending a
 few minutes now to learn it will save you a  lot of  time later.   Windows
 also has  no need  for utilities  such as  the above  mentioned because it
 doesn't have to be hacked into like GEM  does.   And when  you do  have to
 hook  into  it,  Windows  provides  functions for programs to hook into it
 legally and thus not interfere with other programs.  And  typical users do
 not need  to spend  hundreds of  dollars on utilities that simply make GEM
 more usable.  I'll admit it - Quick  ST is  a great  thing on  the ST, but
 really  useless  on  Windows.    Windows  is faster than GEM to begin with
 (since the graphics routines are not all written in C like GEM is) and the
 processors it  runs on  are faster.   Just  a few days ago I ported the ST
 Xformer 8-bit emulator to the 386 and now it runs  5 times  faster than on
 the ST  (or 3  times compared  to a  16MHz 1040ST  or Mega STE) yet my 386
 machine is less expensive than something like a Mega STE.

     Q: What about sound and MIDI and all  the other  built-in goodies that
 the ST or TT provides?

     A: There  are boards  available for  the PC  that add  MIDI and stereo
 sound sampling and playback capability.    One  such  board  I  saw (oddly
 enough at an Atari ST dealer) went for about $200.

     Someone commented  in last  week's ST  Report that  the TT has all the
 features I talked about (in the 386) built-it at no  cost whereas  the 386
 has all  these extra costs.  Baloney!  First of all, the open architecture
 of the PC machines allows anyone  to add  memory, add  a hard  disk, add a
 parallel interface,  add a  graphics cards, etc. very easily and to change
 these devices when necessary.  If my hard disk is too small, I can  put in
 a larger one.  If I want to add a mouse, I drop in a mouse card.  You, the
 user, get to choose what goes into your machine.   You are  not paying for
 features you don't need (I personally don't use MIDI and I doubt that most
 ST users do) or features that will never  be used  (such as  the STE's new
 and unused  joystick ports)  or features that don't do all they were hyped
 up to do (like the blitter chip).  I can  spend the  $200 that  would have
 gone for  MIDI and use it to buy 4 meg of RAM instead of 1 meg.  That same
 person went on to mention that the TT only has  320x480 resolution  in 256
 colors (while  the Mac  II and  VGA cards are double that resolution), but
 one day he'll be able to hook up his VME bus to some spectacular  new high
 resolution monitor.  Someday, and at some unknown price, if ever.

     What really  cracked me  up was  the comment that Windows was not com-
 patible with much software while the TT was.  It's more like the other way
 around by  his own  admission.   Folks, if you're going to comment, please
 research what you say.  This person has obviously no  experience with Win-
 dows and  probably derives most of his information about the TT from Atari
 press releases  instead of  basing anything  on experience.   Please don't
 compare apples  with oranges.  Comparing a PC that exists now to a machine
 that might one day actually hit the market is not fair.   18 months  ago I
 read in  a print  magazine that Atari had a 68000 based game machine ready
 to go.  Where?  We've been hearing about the  TT for  two years  now.  Two
 years ago  the TT  would have  been far  more competitive  against the PCs
 available at the time.  And the STE and LYNX were late  to ship.   I don't
 see a  TT on sale at my Atari dealer so I can't suggest to anyone to delay
 purchasing another computer in the hopes that the TT might ship one day.

     Q: What else?

     A: Merry Christmas! &  Happy New  Year!   To be  continued in January.
 I'll discuss  other software  for the PC (Windows and non-Windows) as well
 as talking about developing software on the PC.


 > ADSPEED STR FOCUS?                "...Today, I purchased AdSpeed by ICD"

                              ADSPEED BY ICD
                           "I CAN'T BELIEVE IT!"

          (This article was retransmitted to various points in the net by a
          friend of the author - see note 3 below)

     OK! After  all these  years of  reading reviews and looking to make my
 1040ST more than it was to begin with, I am impelled to write a  review so
 that all  of you can share in this.  I am using WordWriter2 to scribe this
 into electronic ink.  Am I THE LEAST BIT  concerned about  scrolling, slow
 spellchecking, or  the time  it takes to reformat a document?  NO!  When I
 went to LDW Power to  make the chart below, was I  worried about scrolling
 or computational  delays?   NO!   Do I  have to  wait an  eternity for GIF
 conversions, fractal generations, CAD  3D redrawing,  WordPerfect hyphena-
 tions, data  base sorts, etc, etc, etc.  NO!  Or stolen CPU interrupt time
 for background downloading and uploading, or  mouse accelerators,  or GDOS
 replacements all  of which  can make  everything just  a bit  slower?  NO!
 Today I purchased AdSpeed by ICD.   It  is truly  a "power  without price"

     John Damiano  wrote about AdSpeed two or three weeks ago in ST Report.
 He included a lot about installing Adspeed but only a  few sentences about
 how well  it works.   But  that included  the phrase: "It feels like a new
 computer.."  So I took a leap of   faith  when AdSpeed  came to  the local
 store this  week.  After all, ICD hadn't let me down before when I added a
 used hard drive to my ST using ICD boards and software.

     Over the years my search for the better  ST led  me to  add 3  megs to
 the one,  a Tweety  Board for  a semblance  of stereo sound, and TOS  1.4.
 Along with the hard drive, those were my hardware enhancements.  Software-
 -wise my ST has been most affected by the Codeheads and the two well-known
 speed enhancement products.

     Yes, I use both Turbo ST and Quick ST and,  as you'll  see below, they
 only enhance  AdSpeed dramatically.   Before  AdSpeed, my  ST had at least
 tolerable performance in GEM windowing and  scrolling because  these speed
 products have been great.  They actually complement each other when loaded

     I left AdSpeed installation to the tech at a local store while  I went
 out with  the family for Christmas shopping.  AdSpeed gives you the option
 to boot up with the old 8 mHz or the new 16 mHz.   I chose  8 so  that the
 speed would  not interfere  with any  floppy- loaded games my son would be
 playing.  (I had read often enough  about how games-makers break the rules
 of  programming  -  thank  you    Charles  F. Johnson).  I figured I could
 software load the 16 mHz when I booted from hard drive for applications.

     When I picked it up from the store, I was told that  "it really seemed
 to work."   Home again, cables and plugs in, software ready, boot... Well,
 at least it booted OK.  I ran 16MHZ.PRG.  A FLASH  of a  message too quick
 to read  and back to the desktop, but wait!   Didn't that open window come
 back awfully  fast?   I tried  another.   ZIP! I  could still  see a quick
 screen draw but not if I blinked.

     I tried  application after  utility after program.  There were no con-
 flicts with any commercial or well-written PD program.  And everything was
 noticeably faster - the speed I had waited for all these years.

     So,  like  everyone  else,  I  went off to Darek Mihocka's Quick Index
 (1.8, for those of you who need to know such things).  Here is a table, of
 my comparisons:

                        TOS 1.4, MEDIUM RESOLUTION

             Quick ST Quick ST Turbo ST     ONLY  Quick ST
             Turbo ST                             Turbo ST

 CPU Mem         163%     164%     163%     164%      99%
 CPU Reg         203%     203%     203%     203%     100%
 CPU Divide      202%     203%     202%     203%      99%
 CPU Shifts      206%     207%     207%     207%      99%
 64K Read       5912%    5912%    5912%    5853%    5953%
 GEMDOS File    2957%    2994%    2994%    3032%    no recollection
 Disk RPM      11250%   11612%   11250%   10285%    7500%

 TOS Text        599%     436%     601%     150%     305%
 TOS String     3344%    3344%    2801%     129%    2072%
 TOS Scroll      140%     138%     140%     111%     132%
 Dialog          455%     411%     455%     167%     285%

     I am  sure one  of the first things you will notice is there are  col-
 umns with Turbo ST and Quick ST.  The speed satisfaction I am  enjoying is
 from using  BOTH AND  AdSpeed.   Check the first three  columns and you'll
 see what I mean.  The last column shows the  Index  results of  using both
 before AdSpeed  came into  the picture.   Yes, Darek, Quick ST does make a
 difference in grayed, bold, etc.,   text displays  that Turbo  ST doesn't.
 And I  had stopped  using most   anything that would slow down the CPU but
 ICD's optional write  cache/verify.  Hence the 99% figure for most  of the
 CPU indexes.   Without the caches, I had gotten the GEM Dialog box indexes
 up to  287%, but what's a  couple  of  percent  compared  to  a lifesaving
 write cache/verify.

     In case  you are  curious, here  are the indexes from Darek's BMVGTEF-
 F.PRG (with Quick ST installed, of course):

                                 Normal: 33
                                   Bold: 31
                                 Grayed: 33
                                 Italic: 43
                              Underline: 29

     Since these are in 1/200th's of a second, they are fast enough  for me

     As anyone  points out, these indexes don't really tell the whole  tale
 by a mile.   It's all  really in  using your  software that  you   can see
 what's going on.  And I've given you a taste of all of  that in the openi-
 ng.  I really  wanted you  to be  able to  see the   indexes  so you could
 share, as soon as possible, in the reality  of AdSpeed.

     By itself,  you'll get  twice the  processing speed.    You'll see the
 difference whenever you use your ST.   Is  that good?     Well, I've never
 written a  review before,  let alone  felt the need to write one.  I think
 that says it all.


 1) I have discovered problems with running MONOEM14.PRG  and the  new Take
 Notes programmers calculator (sigh!).

 2) My  ST has  an extensive  AUTO folder.  Some programs do affect the in-
 dexes slightly.  And REGACC seems to speed up Dialog box drawing  and slow
 down TOS  String indexes  (I don't  know why.)  Here is the list for my ST
 (yes, 4 megs makes all the difference):

     PINHEAD 1.8         POOLFIX4       TIMESET        QUICKST
     G+PLUS              RESR           MOUSE2         DCSHOW 1.1
     CODE_RAM            ILINKCLP       REGACC         UISIII
     ADSPEED             16MHZ

 3) Who am I?  Just a 40+ year-old member  of the  electronic community and
 living on  Long Island  in New  York.   You wouldn't know me.  I am not an
 affiliated with any person, company,  or  product  mentioned  here.   They
 wouldn't  know  me  (I'm  terrible  at  filling  out warranty/registration
 cards) nor would you.  And, except for  the occasional  on-line arguments,
 I  enjoy  experiencing  the  anonymous  existence of peaceful information,
 questions, comments and personalities that appear througout the  net.  So,
 I am leaving it that way for now.


 > DENNY HAYES STR FOCUS?    * EXCLUSIVE! *   "..if I single someone out.."


     STReport  has  obtained  directly  from  DENNIS  HAYES  his  very  own
     statements concerning his arrest and ultimate conviction for copyright
     violation.    Names  of  individuals  and companys mentioned have been
     removed or blocked out.

 by Dennis Hayes aka "Denny" Hayes

 Part I

    This is  the statement  I prepared  to read  at my  sentencing, but was
 advised not  to read,  because the judicial system doesn't like you saying
 bad things about them.  I've also added a comment at the end.   I've tried
 to make  sure it's  as truthful  as I  can.  If there are any mistakes, it
 wasn't intentional.  Of course everything  is from  my point  of view.   I
 can't pretend  to be someone else, and think like them.  Many are going to
 read this, and say I got what I deserved.  Ignorance is bliss.   To affect
 what happens  to me has nothing to do with me writing this.  My sentencing
 is over, and what I say here makes little difference  with respect  to me.
 But if  anything, I say here, can help keep anyone else from going through
 this, it was worth it, and will make me feel what I have gone  through had
 some purpose.

                             S T A T E M E N T

 Your honor,

     I've been  informed that I should make a statement in my behalf.  I've
 had a long time trying to decide what to say, but it's hard to decide what
 to say.  I'm not an attorney, and don't know what will help me or hurt me,
 and I doubt that it makes any difference what I say.   If I  say something
 good about  myself it  comes out  that I'm  trying to pretend to be an in-
 nocent bystander.  If I comment on the many problems I've had to date, I'm
 looked at as a complainer, and most of us have problems in life.  If I say
 nothing, my family has to suffer.  If I comment  on the  questionable tac-
 tics used  to prosecute  me, I'm passing the buck, and not accepting blame
 for my actions.  And in reality most of the  agents I've  met are surpris-
 ingly intelligent,  and fair.   I  even thought  of mentioning one who has
 tried his best to be fair, but I'm afraid if I single someone out it might
 put him in bad light.  Anyway, he knows who he is, and he has my thanks.

    Since I'm  not sure  what is  best said,  I'm just  going to say what I
 feel, trying not to hurt anyone, and let it fall where it may.   And since
 the pre-sentencing  investigation report  started when I was in grade sch-
 ool, so will I.

    I'm a technically oriented  person who  started school,  and really en-
 joyed learning  new things.   When the rest of my peers were playing base-
 ball, I was studying.  And  for this  effort I  had the  words honor pupil
 written on  the side  of my  report card every year.  The problem was, and
 is, there is no reward for this effort.  The kid who can knock a home run,
 and lean  against the  wall looking  cool, without saying a thing gets all
 the attention.  In reality he probably says  nothing because  he can't put
 two syllables together to form a word.

    There are  many other  advantages to not appearing smarter than anyone.
 When my oldest daughter was in  the first  grade, she  could already read,
 because I  had spent  the time to teach her.  Her teacher complained to me
 that I should stop teaching things to her ahead of  time, because  it made
 it hard  for the  teacher to teach her, when she already knows, the things
 she is trying to teach to her.   I guess  they want  everyone at  the same
 level now.   Just  a couple  weeks ago  she came home, and said she had to
 redo a report she had turned in, because  she had  done it  on a computer,
 and was told it wasn't fair to the kids that didn't have one.  I guess she
 also shouldn't use her brain, if the rest of the class doesn't have one as
 good either.

       So around  the sixth  grade I  decided that  if I  didn't appear too
 smart I might be accepted a little more.  That was easy,  just fail  a few
 tests on  purpose.   The problem  was it didn't work.  I just didn't think
 like most people, and I didn't like baseball, or football.  Also,  in most
 other areas  I didn't  think the same.  And I didn't take what was told to
 me by others without trying to find out  what was  really true.   Which is
 probably a large factor that brought me  here.

     I  joined  the  navy  after  graduating  from high school, and entered
 electronics school.  I graduated in the  top  10%  of  my  class,  and was
 jumped to the next rank.

     In college  I didn't  understand the  importance of  a degree.  I just
 loved electronics, and wanted to learn  everything about  it that  I could
 without wasting time on subjects like English, and Psychology.  Or maybe I
 was just impatient.  So even though I've had many  hours, I  never matric-
 ulated, and therefore never received a degree.

     After school  I started  working for  a company as a non degreed engi-
 neer, at $3.10 per hour.  Very quickly I was considered the oddball elect-
 ronics wizard of the company.  This upset the former wizards, who tried to
 make it as hard as they could for me.   After three,  and a  half years, I
 had all  the political  beating I could take, so I quit, and took a job as
 assistant chief engineer with a new company, which was, four  years later,
 bought out  by the same guy that started Days Inn Motel chain.  During the
 transfer they had a flood which put them out of business.   So I  was left
 without a job.

     I then  started working for consulting engineering firms on assignment
 to large companies like Procter & Gamble, Monsanto, AM Kinny, etc.

     As I started having a family,  I wanted  to make  a better  living for
 them, and  myself.  Large Fortune 500 companies required a degree, and you
 really didn't need to know much.  And  smaller companies  didn't pay much.
 They liked  being able  to hire  someone who  is good, and who they didn't
 have to pay much.  It's a shame that you get paid  for the  piece of paper
 rather that what you know, and can do.  Prior to having a family, I really
 didn't care though, I loved what I was doing, and the money didn't matter.
 So I decided to start a company with a friend of mine.  The problem was, I
 didn't realize how lazy he was, and after  some customers  cancelled their
 orders,  because  he  didn't  finish  his  part, I started my own company,
 designing, and building robotics,  and test  equipment for  large corpora-

     That was  one of  the biggest mistakes I ever made.  I worked over 100
 hours a week, and made little money.  Large corporations seem to get where
 they are  by walking  on small companies, and throwing them away when they
 ask a fair shake.  I had a meeting on the eleventh floor of a local chemi-
 cal  corporation  tower,  where  they  admitted  they owed me thousands of
 dollars, but were not going to pay, because they had hired some  new young
 hot shots  who wanted to do the job by themselves.  The former head of the
 department had  been forced  into an  early retirement  at the  age of 59,
 which later caused him a heart attack.  When I mentioned that I would have
 to take them to court, I was informed that since all the  orders, they had
 given me, were rush orders, they hadn't sent me any paper work.  In fact I
 don't ever remember getting paper work on any  jobs I  ever did  for them.
 Every job  was a  rush job,  and if you wanted any future orders from them
 you did what they ask.  Of course I consulted  an attorney,  and of course
 he told  me that  I would  be a fool to take on a company of that size.  I
 made the mistake one time to take a company to court, who owed me  a large
 amount of  money, and  I saw what happens.  I won't go into detail of what
 the job was, if you are  like most  attorneys, high  tech stuff  is out of
 your realm, and it would take too long to explain.  But to make it simple,
 it was an assembly job, something  any low  tech person  could do.   I did
 this job,  on 30  day open  account payment,  which is  quite usual in the
 electronic world.  I sent the  first half  open account.   But  before the
 second half of the order was completed, I was informed by another company,
 that they had a bad reputation for not paying their debts.  So I  made the
 second half COD.  True to form they didn't pay for the first half.

     After months  of run around phone calls about the person being respon-
 sible for payment being out of town, etc, I decided to take them to court.
 They counter-sued,  saying the units I'd done were defective.  And without
 notifying me, or giving me the opportunity to repair any  supposed defect,
 they said,  they had  repaired them at a cost of twice what I charged them
 for the whole order.  My attorney felt since they were caught in many lies
 in court,  and they admitted they never contacted me about any defects, we
 would win.  Two weeks later the decision  came down  that I  owed them all
 they  asked  for,  and  I  got  nothing.  What happened, who knows.  Since
 Cincinnati is not a very good place for a high tech business,  and I'd had
 quite a few other bad debts, I was forced into bankruptcy.

     But not  being the kind of person who gives up, I started again with a
 business manufacturing printed circuit boards, and  consumer products.   I
 guess this  was like jumping from the frying pan to the fire.  At one time
 Cincinnati had about a  dozen  specialty  electronic  design  companies in
 town.   Now there  is only one I know of.  They have all realized there is
 no money in it.  So I'm sure it's not just my  ability to  run a business.
 People save  up a  little money  and get  the idea  to sell some widget or
 something.  They hire someone like me to design it  for them,  not knowing
 that the  product has  little importance.  And after the reality hits they
 drop the project like a hot potato owing me a  large amount  of money.   I
 tried getting  money up  front, but  they use it up then they have me bill
 them for the rest at 30 days, which stretches to 90 days, or more before I
 realize they  have run  out of money.  At that time I've worked over three
 months for nothing.

     It's a shame but  most people  don't know  quality.   They buy advert-
 ising, name,  and flair.   I  have a  friend who is the head of the design
 department of the largest local toy company, who  tells me  the product is
 7th on  the list  of importance  with his company.  Marketing of course is
 first, and the list goes down from there.  You  can quickly  see you don't
 need a  good product.   If  you have a good marketing program you can sell
 manure for $5.00 a gallon as fertilizer, face cream, or whatever.   It's a
 shame, but I now find my skills aren't really needed.

     After a few years of this, I see I'm heading for another bankruptcy, I
 feel I'm getting old, I then lost someone I cared a lot about, and  I find
 myself wandering  around Drug  Palace trying  to find something I can kill
 myself with, with assurance that it will work.  Fortunately  the medicines
 that work  for sure  are prescription only.  Also, I began to realize that
 it would put a big strain on my family, and  I didn't  want to  do to them
 what  my  mom  did  to  me,  so I called University Hospital and told them
 something was wrong with my head.  They  put me  on a  new anti-depressant
 drug test  program, which  turned me into a zombie.  Our living conditions
 were really bad.  My furnace went out,  and I  couldn't afford  to replace
 it.  So for three winters I asphyxiated my family and myself with kerosene
 heaters, which didn't even do much, except make  us all  cough a  lot from
 the fumes,  when it  was really cold.  So we often wore coats to help keep
 us warm.  They started foreclosure on our home three times, but somehow we
 ended up coming up with enough money to stop it.  I later finally lost it.
 At one point they turned our electricity off.   The  kids were  sitting in
 the tub  using the  hot water  left in the hot water tank to warm them up,
 until it ran out.  I had no money but I was expecting a check for a little
 job I'd  done, so  I turned  the electricity  back on again myself.  A few
 days later I received the check, and paid  the electric  bill.   Then many
 months later,  a representative  of CG&E  and a  county sheriff came to my
 house with a warrant for my arrest for theft of utilities, even  though my
 electricity was paid up to date.  After talking to my attorney they agreed
 to drop the charges,  if I  would pay  around $500.00  for a  crack in the
 meter that  I'm not  sure I even caused.  I paid it, and a few weeks later
 CG&E re-instituted the charges, saying the person who agreed to  drop them
 didn't have the authority.

     Since the  utility companies have recently pushed through a law (which
 I doubt that many know about) that makes it a  felony to  do anything aga-
 inst them,  I was charged with a felony.  I was encouraged to plead guilty
 to a lesser charge, and was put on one year probation.   And then  my wife
 left me, stating that she had enough of being poor, and later divorced me.
 Maybe she is better off.  Life like this is tough.

     So after a few  months I  had enough  of the  pills I  was taking, and
 threw them  in the  garbage.   I now  partially understand  how my mother,
 after graduating  with honors  at the  top of  her class  took 30 sleeping
 pills and killed herself.  When I was younger, I would never have believed
 it could get this  bad.   As I  think about  it though,  I guess  it makes
 sense.   If you don't have the burning desire to accomplish much, you face
 very little disappointment.

     For the next two or three years I could not function.  I'd sit  on the
 couch crying  sometime, in  a daze sometime, thinking a lot, and trying to
 function off, and on.  And I wasn't  a very  good provider  for my family.
 We would be on welfare, then I would do a little job, then we were back on
 welfare, etc.  Somewhere in there  I  bough  a  small  game  computer, and
 learned how to push it beyond its limits.  I thought games were a waste of
 time, so when I heard a company was  coming out  with a  device that plugs
 into the  slot on  the computer  meant for game, but would allow me to run
 word processors, spreadsheets, etc I checked into it.  I  found the device
 needed a  set of two computer chips from a MacIntosh computer, so I called
 around, and ended up borrowing some money, and  buying about  a dozen from
 different places.  I figured since the supply seemed low, I could sell the
 remainder at a little markup.  Later I  ran an  ad on  a computer bulletin
 board, that  I had  some chips for sale, and if anyone was interested they
 could leave me a message.  I received over 300 requests for the chips.

     Then I started thinking.  I knew I  could copy  the chips  for my fri-
 ends, and  myself.   That way I could sell the rest of the chips I had and
 make a few dollars.  So I bought some blank  chips, copied  the chips, and
 sold the  ones I'd  bought.   After a while everyone, I hadn't shipped to,
 was calling to find out why I didn't ship them  any.   I told  them that I
 only had  purchased a dozen sets, and they were all gone.  So I decided to
 order some more chips, copy them, and send everyone a set.

     This continued until I had orders coming in  faster than  I could make
 them.   At this point I started wondering about the legal problems I might
 get myself into, so I contacted  from  5  to  10  attorneys  (including my
 present attorney)  to find  out what  could happen.  Some said they didn't
 know for sure, and  others said  I could  be sued  by Apple  for copyright
 infringement.  Not one ever mentioned anything about criminal prosecution,
 even though I told them exactly  what I  was doing.   One  of the investi-
 gators recently  told me,  I should have known it was a criminal violation
 to do what I was doing, because there are many indications in life that it
 is a  criminal offence,  like the  notice on video tapes.  I told him that
 there is so much false propaganda in society that I  felt the  only way to
 find out for sure was to check with the people who should know.  I guess I
 learned something there.

    A year and a half ago, I was asked by the company who made  the device,
 which my  chips plugged  into, to  show people how it worked at a computer
 show in Chicago.  At that show, about five business men came up to  me and
 asked me  where you  get the  chips to  make the device work.  I told them
 that they could order them from me.  At that  point they  informed me that
 two of  them were attorneys, and the other three were from Apple Computer.
 Since they didn't seem  upset, and  seemed only  curious how  a cheap game
 computer could  run software created to run on a MacIntosh, I assumed they
 didn't really object.  If they had ever even implied  that they  wanted me
 to quit,  I would have done so.  I had already made more money than I ever
 expected too.  It also seemed  in line  with Apples  normal policy.   They
 encouraged  schools  to  use  MacIntosh software by selling MacIntosh com-
 puters to the schools at almost cost.  They have many times published that
 students would  get used  to using Mac software, and then recommend MacIn-
 tosh computers when they got into  the business  force.   Allowing kids to
 use game computers accomplishes the same.  It's curious that when everyone
 is questioned about a victim of my crime, they really  can't find  one, so
 they dance  around the  question.  In reality I doubt that there is a vic-
 tim.  The users are happy they have access to information they wouldn't be
 able to afford.  And in more ways than one it is boosting Mac sales.

     In fact  I had a policeman from New York who bought a set of ROMs from
 me to use in his sons computer, and later showed it to  his department who
 ended up  buying hundreds  of thousands of dollars worth of MacIntosh com-
 puters for their department.  I had another  person buy  a set  for one of
 his children's  computer.  He kept them for four months, and called me one
 day to ask if he could return them and get some money back.   When I asked
 him why,  he informed  me he was a doctor, and had went out and spent over
 $10,000.00 on a top of the  line Mac  IIci.   I told  him to  send his ROM
 chips back, and I would give him all his money back.  And these are only a
 few that I know of.  Until I was charged, I had sold over 5,000.00 sets of
 ROMs to  every kind  of person from the US Treasury Dept, and the Veterans
 Administration to school kids  who were  using their  game computer  to do
 their homework.  But I doubt that many people who can really afford to buy
 a MacIntosh computer are  going to  buy a  game computer  with all  of its

     It was  funny though,  when I  was asked  what the US government could
 possibly be using the ROMs for, as if  they never  would skirt  around the
 law.   I don't  mean to  pick on  government workers, but even though they
 may not want to admit it they are just like the rest of us.   Getting what
 they can  for as little as they can, and trying to do the best they can in
 a situation where the cards are stacked against  them.   I know  they have
 been cutting the budget, but I believe the government can afford something
 besides a $300.00 game computer.  It won't ever be  public, but  I think I
 know what  really happened.  Some people working for the government wanted
 to play with one, and just got the government to pay for it, and since the
 FBI knows  about it,  he probably  is already in trouble.  See they are as
 bad, and sometimes worse than the  rest of  us.   It makes  you wonder how
 many other  personal toys,  the public  is paying for.  Mentioning this is
 not an attempt to point the finger, and say they do it  too.........  Well
 on second  thought maybe  it was,  otherwise I wouldn't have mentioned it.
 But, I am still guilty of making them.  Without me they would have probab-
 ly had a friend copy the program into an EPROM or something.  In fact from
 what I have counted, only about  a forth  of the  people have  been buying
 ROMs like  the ones  I made.   Most  people in the computer world probably
 either make them themselves, since it is so simple, or  get a  copy of the
 program on a computer disc, which is even easier.

     All this  may sound like Greek to a person who doesn't spend much time
 with computers, but swapping computer programs,  is the  norm in  the com-
 puter world.  To date, I've never met a person who wouldn't ask for a copy
 of a program I had, or more often agree to swap a copy of a program he had
 for one  I had.  There are many hundreds of computer boards around the US,
 and other countries, who offer a 5 or 8 to one exchange.   Of  course they
 are all  copyrighted, and  anytime you  copy one you are breaking the law,
 but given the option to do without or pay the  $200 to  $20,000.00 or more
 for a  program they  aren't really  going to  use in  business, they would
 probably do without.  For most it's really  more like  collecting baseball
 cards,  since  very  few,  I  talk  to,  ever  seem to know much about the
 programs they already have.   It  takes much  effort, and  most people are
 lazy when  it comes  to using their brains to learn something new, or just
 don't have the time.  It's the few that do, that go on to  become the whiz
 kids of  the future.   If  they don't have access to the information, this
 country is doomed.

     Try to compare it to going to the public library  in which  almost all
 books are  copyrighted.   Now try to find a floor of the library without a
 copier.  What's that copier for.   Now,  and in  the future  more and more
 data is being put on computer discs.  In the distant future the library as
 it is today will probably disappear.   Can  you imagine  what it  would be
 like if you as an attorney, or a student had to buy every book you used at
 the library.  I understand that there is a law that says you can  now copy
 part of  a book  but not  the whole book, but there is no way you can copy
 part of a computer disc, and  be able  to use  it.   Or to  really compare
 apples and  apples, attorneys  and many other professionals are using what
 they copy to make  money, so  you could  say they  should have  to buy the
 book.   Well, in  reality if they find they use it a lot, they usually do.
 And in the computer world, if they use a program a lot,  they also usually
 do.   It's so much nicer to have the support of the author of the program,
 and be able to call them and get help by giving them  your buyers' author-
 ization number off the box, when you need help.

     And if  you know  very little  about computers, what I did was sort of
 like providing the viewer to look at these programs.  And if  you have the
 viewer, you look at MacIntosh programs, and if you find a use for them you
 buy them, and Apple, and their  developers therefore  make money.   And if
 they have a real use for the programs, they usually get discouraged by the
 problems of the game computer, and you go  out and  buy a  real MacIntosh,
 which makes Apple even more money.

      I still  can't understand  why, if it is now the business of the FBI,
 to stop  the pirating  of software,  why do  they know  about these pirate
 boards, and  not stop  them.   And I can guarantee they know about many of
 them.  From watching, and talking to them it seems  it's only  against the
 law if  you make  money doing it.  That's cute, you can supposedly cheat a
 company out of all  the money  you want,  but if  you make  too much money
 doing it,  the FBI is going to take it away, put you in jail, and not give
 a cent  to the  people who  have been  ripped off.   There  are some other
 things they  have done,  in my case, which I wont mention because it might
 hurt people needlessly, which also let me know this is true.   Also, in my
 case they  say they are not even sure Apple lost any money.  I think I may
 have figured out the amount too.   I  watched an  agent get  chewed out in
 front of me for telling his boss that I had a million dollars, when I only
 had less than a $400,000.00.  It seemed  he was  irritated that  they came
 after me  before I  made enough  money for  them.   Which was  also in bad
 taste.  He could have waited until I wasn't around.  I actually felt sorry
 for the guy.

     Contrary to  what Apple might try to say, real businesses aren't going
 to buy game computers to use, and the  game computer  doesn't run  all the
 software, or  have color,  anyway.  I also doubt that many of these mostly
 kids who are using game computers could afford the over $3000.00 price for
 a Mac.  And the idea as was mentioned by Apple's attorneys that they would
 worry about repair of the bad chips they might get  back, is  also ridicu-
 lous since  they admitted the part only cost them $1.00, and if every chip
 I ever sold failed they could  replace them  all for  less than $5,000.00.
 To date I've only had about a dozen people call and say their chips didn't
 work, and I just sent them a new  one.   In reality,  when I  checked them
 most of them weren't really bad at all.  They must have been plugging them
 in wrong or something.  It's very rare for a chip that has no moving parts
 to ever go bad.

     I admire IBM who when Compact Computer Company did exactly what I did,
 by copying the chips from IBM's MS DOS PC computer,  told Compact Computer
 they didn't  care, and that they felt it would help MS DOS computer sales.
 And I guess it worked.  Today MS DOS computer sales count for over  60% of
 all 'S  computer sales.   I'm  curious what would have happened if IBM had
 taken the position of Apple computer.  I wonder if they would have charged
 the  owners  of  that  large  corporation with something, and then tack on
 charges that carries 26 years in jail.  I doubt it.

     Another interesting thing is that the  copyright, that  I'm accused of
 violating, is  presently in litigation in California.  And the ROM chips I
 was selling aren't even for sale anymore, by Apple.   If you  own a MacIn-
 tosh computer,  and have  a chip go bad, tough luck, it's out of warranty,
 and you go out  and plunk  down another  $3000.00 for  another one.   They
 probably  won't  admit  this,  but  I've  sold quite a few hundred sets to
 repair centers for Apple, who say they can't  get them  from Apple anymore
 at any  cost.   As for the litigation I mentioned, it seems everyone is in
 litigation.  IBM has encouraged Microsoft  Corporation and  Hewlet Packard
 Corporation to  make a  program that  works like  the MacIntosh ROMs to be
 used in the IBM MS DOS computer, so Apple is suing them.  This  upset many
 people, including  Apple Records who is now suing Apple Computer for using
 their name  and going  into the  music business  without their permission.
 And Zerox  is suing  Apple Computer  for copying  part of the same program
 which is in the ROMs that I'm accused of copying.   They  say they created
 it to  be used  in a  computer that they later decided not to produce, and
 Apple has copied it without their permission.   Also there  is a  group of
 engineers within  Apple who calls themselves the New Promethius League who
 are dissatisfied with the bully tactics used by Apple, and are giving away
 the program I was selling to anyone who asks for it at no charge.

     Apple appears  to be  trying to monopolize a computer that they didn't
 really totally create themselves, and is  making many  people in  the com-
 puter world  very unhappy.   They  drastically over charge for it, and sue
 anyone who is possibly a threat.  Now they have  the FBI  doing their work
 for them,  so they  don't look worse than they already do.  You can buy an
 IBM with the same power for  less than  a third  of the  cost.   It's very
 interesting that  you can  run most  of their  software on a game computer
 that sells  for a  little over  $300.00 and  until recently  they sold the
 lowest  cost  Mac  for  over  $3000.00.  Fortunately computer publications
 aren't so sympathetic, and are  informing  people  of  what  is  going on.
 Also, fortunately  for the consumer, so many people are angry that I doubt
 that Apple will be able to hold out in the long run.  In  a way  I hate to
 see it.   The  Mac is  a really nice computer and I'm going to hate to see
 developers steer away from it.  But maybe it will make them clean up their
 act.  In reality, I doubt it.

     I've been  asked many  times by companies wanting to create a clone of
 the Mac if I could sell them 256K  ROMs from  the top  of the  line Mac II
 family.  It's actually as easy to copy as the ones I sold, and I could get
 twice the money, but I like the Mac  computer, and  don't want  to do any-
 thing that  would harm  Apple.  Not for Apple themselves, but the consumer
 like myself would be harmed.  My interest in playing with Mac  software is
 what has helped bring me out of the deep depression I was in.  I have also
 met a friend who lives in Pasadena, CA who is in the same boat.   His wife
 died, and  at the  age of 60 sitting around waiting to die he developed an
 interest in Mac software, and now lives in his computer as I do.  That was
 until the FBI took his ROM set away from him.  He could never have done it
 without the emulator by Gadgets  Inc,  and  the  ROMs  I  sold  him.   The
 computer would have cost more than his car.

     This same Apple Inc. has now contacted the FBI to use them to stop me,
 when all they would have had to do is ask me to stop.  And all the reports
 show that  the FBI  has really done everything by themselves, so as to not
 involve Apple.  I even believed it for a while.  In order to  not hurt the
 persons who  finally let me know what really happened, I won't mention how
 I found out to the contrary.     Now I'm forced to  plead guilty  to char-
 ges, or  I will  be charged  with multiples  of the  same charges for each
 transaction, and other charges, which carry more time than me and my great
 grandchildren have  to live.   But the real reason I plead guilty was that
 I didn't want anymore local publicity than has already been published, and
 I've been  told you  can't beat the IRS or the FBI, anyway.  So far it has
 appeared in only one local paper,  and the  way it  was worded, mentioning
 guns without  saying that  they were  legally registered,  and using words
 like money laundering which most people believe has  something to  do with
 drugs,  has  caused  many  people  to  believe I must be involved with the
 Mafia.  My oldest daughter cried herself to sleep one night, when her best
 friend's father  told his  daughter that she wasn't allowed to talk to her
 or come to our home anymore,  because my  criminal gangster  friends might
 come after  me sometime and hurt his daughter.  And her dad is supposed to
 be an intelligent engineer at General Electric Company.  I wonder what the
 not  too  intelligent  people  are  thinking.  But since writing this, and
 receiving my sentence I have decide that, hiding things lets them hurt you

     It does  seem a  little out of proportion to tack on laws that carry a
 25 year sentence to a charge that carries a maximum sentence of  one year.
 And even though I understand that ignorance is no excuse, it's interesting
 that when I went to question people to find out  who created  all the lies
 on the  search and seizure warrant, I questioned my bank manager who along
 with denying that he said what was stated on the  report, went  on to tell
 me that  he was  asked why  he didn't  report me when I was making so many
 transactions under $10,000.00.  He told me that, he told them, he knew the
 form had to filled out for transactions over $10,000.00 but he didn't know
 it was against the law to do anything under that amount.  One of my attor-
 neys, after reading the law, said heck the way the law is written, I might
 have been guilty of violating it, in the past.   I told  him to  lower his
 voice, or  he might  be charged  next.   I don't  know how they can expect
 people to follow the rules, if no one seems to know the rules.

     It has been implied  though not  stated that  I was  going to  hide my
 income from IRS.  This is total bunk.  In the search warrant it was repor-
 ted that I told  bank managers,  and other  people, on  many different oc-
 casions, that  I was  trying to  cheat on  my taxes.   I talk a lot, but I
 don't think I would be that crazy, even if I really had  the intent.   And
 all of  them denied  it, when  I later  asked them.   Since I'm hoping the
 prosecution hasn't  gone as  far as  to make  things up,  it's either that
 someone tried  to score  some points  while talking  to an  agent, or they
 misread my attempts to hide my actions, and told themselves, that was what
 I was  doing.  There probably is no way to ever find out.  At another bank
 where it was stated that, I said the same thing, I have only talked to the
 young teller,  and I  really believed her when she said no one ever talked
 to her.  I'd guess the  information was  third hand  from her  boss, who I
 have never  talked, too.   So many people have supposedly said it, that it
 appears as if it's coming from a script.  I could go on and on about this,
 which serves no purpose.

     I guess  it's is  just that when you do unusual or questionable things
 people read into it what they want, too.  I even had the probation officer
 who came  to make  a pre-sentence  investigation report on me write in his
 report that I told him I  was going  to cheat  on my  taxes.   Now this is
 really nuts.   I  had told him when he was here that I had no intention of
 cheating on my taxes.  After he left, I called him to tell him something I
 had forgotten,  and ended  up telling  him again, just to make sure he un-
 derstood, that I had no intention of cheating on my taxes.  When a copy of
 his report came to me a few weeks later, it said I told him I was going to
 cheat on my taxes.  Since I had the right to object, I called  my attorney
 and had him get it removed.  That is, I hope, I never saw the final editi-
 on.  It's as if this fixation is in everyone's head.  In all  honesty, the
 investigator I  talked too,  was very fair in his report.  He probably was
 obligated to say this or something.  I really don't know.  All I  know for
 sure is that I doubt that I would have the nerve to falsify my income tax,
 knowing I would probably be audited, and I would have  had no  way of kno-
 wing how  much information  they would  have known.   I  told an FBI agent
 recently, that  knowing my  personality, it's  possible that  I would have
 pushed the  limits a  little, but  didn't even get to find out, and really
 even doubt that.  At one time I had thought of giving them an extra $50,0-
 00.00 beyond what I owed them, just to insure they wouldn't come after me.
 But, as my dad,  who was  head of  a local  branch of  the Ohio  State tax
 bureau for  many years  told me,  with the  IRS rules  the way they are, I
 probable would still have been charged with something.

     I had more money than I  needed, and  was trying  to straighten things
 out.   I did  many stupid  things that  may have  indicated I might try to
 cheat.  But everyone knows, it is serious  stuff to  make a  lot of money,
 and not  pay income taxes.  If I had to guess what I would have done, from
 past filing experience, I probably would have done, what I did in previous
 years.   Take the book you get from IRS, go down page by page, looking for
 the category things I had bought,  fell under,  and if  it looked  as if I
 could deduct  it, I would.  Because every thing written can be interpreted
 may different ways, I probably would have deducted too little or too much.
 I wonder  if anyone  even believes me, even my attorney may not, though he
 probably really doesn't care, he's just doing his job the best he can.  In
 fact that  seems what  everyone is doing, while covering their tail at the
 same time.  It's  real frustrating  when you  know your  own thoughts, but
 can't find  a way to explain them to others, without them reading in their
 own thoughts.  And even if you could, the system is set  up so,  that most
 of them  can't even  do anything about the chain of events anyway.  Here I
 am not being charged with trying to rip off IRS,  but yet  since the pros-
 ecutors feel that was what I was going to do, they have used other charges
 which can convict me without actually having to  charge me  with what they
 think I was going to do.  Something is definitely wrong with this system.

     As my  secretary, my  friends, my  family, and  myself have many times
 told the FBI, and if anyone is really interested, I  felt that  some day I
 might be  sued by  Apple as  attorneys have  told me,  so if it happened I
 didn't want them to be able to find my money.   In  fact most  of my money
 came from  out of this country via bank transfers, which appear on my bank
 statements which would be available at any audit.  I admit I  wrote checks
 to myself  to remove  the money from the bank, but I don't believe this is
 against the law, and I also  cashed most  of the  US checks  written to my
 name, which  is also not against the law, or the bank wouldn't have let me
 do it.  During two bankruptcies I've had creditors go into my  account and
 take all  they could find.  At one time I had no money for groceries, so I
 borrowed some money from my brother, and like an idiot put it in my check-
 ing account.   The next day one of my creditors took every penny.  I ended
 up going to welfare to get an emergency food voucher.

     I admit I didn't file income tax for a few years.  I wasn't making any
 money,  and  in  my  depressed  state, not really wanting to live anymore,
 filing income tax was low in priority.   I'd also  asked what  the penalty
 for not filing was.  and I was told that I would have to pay an additional
 penalty based on what I owed them, which in my  case was  nothing.   I un-
 derstand, unless  you make  a certain amount, which I'm sure I didn't, you
 aren't required to even file.  But I bet, if  you asked  10 attorneys, you
 would get either an I don't really know for sure, or 10 different stories.
 They don't even know all the laws.  I understand,  however, as consistency
 follows through,  there is  a law that says you must file, and another one
 that says you don't need to.  And you have to guess which one to use.

    The biggest mistake I made appears to  be  that  I  took  cash  from my
 checking  account  then  purchased  cashier's  checks  for an amount under
 $10,000.00 to buy things.  It seems there is a  law which  says it  is il-
 legal to try to avoid the $10,000.00 reporting amount.  I even admitted to
 the FBI and IRS that I  was trying  to avoid  it so  it would  be hard for
 Apple to find my money if they ever came after me, and no one ever told me
 this was illegal.

     Near the end of the year in which  I started  making money,  I hired a
 secretary to  type into my computer all the receipts and information I had
 accumulated in the past few years.   After  a few  months I  found she had
 written a check to her self for $800.00 and had forged my name, so I asked
 her to leave.  I later looked at what she  had been  typing into  the com-
 puter and found it was mostly garbage.   She was in pre-law at the Univer-
 sity of Cincinnati and even though she took the job, she didn't like being
 a lowly  secretary.  Since I had to start over and it would be too late to
 file income tax for  that year,  I decided  to put  it off  until the next
 year.   Around the  middle of  the next  year I hired another secretary to
 retype the information into the computer.  She  was running  a little late
 so I  filed for  an extension  on my taxes.  Before the extension was up I
 was raided by the FBI and the IRS, who didn't know I'd filed an extension.
 After they  looked it up they told my attorney that the $1000.00 I had put
 on the extension form, indicated that I was planning on paying only $1000-
 .00 in  taxes.  This is ridiculous.  I hadn't filed income tax for quite a
 few years, and had no idea of what I was going to have to  pay.   You just
 have to put something down anyway.

     I had  hundreds of  thousands of dollars going through my checking ac-
 count, and I'm going to try to claim I'm only going to  owe $1000.00.   As
 the joke  goes I may be stupid, but I'm not crazy, or am I.  If I was ever
 audited, which I sure would have been, after not having filed for  so many
 years,  they  would  surely  ask  for my bank statements, which would show
 this.  And I don't really believe any rational person  could believe this.
 But again they didn't charge me with income evasion.  And too many people,
 whom the IRS talked too, also knew I was trying  to bring  my taxes  up to
 date.  (E.g., My ex-wife, my secretary, my daughters, my father, etc.) Why
 don't they just come out and say that everything you do with money, has to
 be reported to the Federal Government, whether you pay taxes on it or not.
 And let everyone know it.  What happened  to the  constitution, and things
 like right  to privacy  etc.  They can now stop cars, and search them wit-
 hout reason or suspicion.  I guess the homes are next.  And with what they
 did with the CNN tapes, it looks like it's not far off.  Of course in that
 case they had to give the tapes back  because they  created too  much of a
 ruckus doing it, and CNN is pretty big and powerful also.

     In reality I had more money than I knew what to do with.  I was giving
 it away by the handfuls.  While  I  was  in  Tijuana,  Mexico,  across the
 border from  San Diego,  I gave away over $10,000.00 to skinny poor people
 on the street.  At my bank I overheard the teller ask an old man if he was
 sure he could live for the next week on the $7.25 he had left.  And here I
 was cashing a check for over $7,000.00.  So on the way out I  took a hand-
 ful of  $100.00 bills  and stuffed  them into  his shirt  pocket, and said
 Merry Christmas, even though it was in the middle of the Summer.  I didn't
 know what  else to say.  I gave away so much I really can't remember where
 it all went.  I bought all my kids new  bedroom sets,  while I  slept on a
 stack of  old mattresses,  using an  old busted dresser, I've since thrown
 away.  And the FBI knows all this to be true.  Even with  all the  money I
 was mostly depressed, and really didn't want much except a better computer
 which I bought.   If I  tried to  do some  electronic design  it seemed to
 bring to  mind my  past failures,  and I  got really nervous and shaky for
 some reason, and couldn't  wait to  quit.   I tried  learning to  fly, and
 bought an old plane because I was told that most small plane manufacturers
 were going out of the business, which would make small  planes more valua-
 ble.   But I soon got bored with flying and didn't even finish my license.
 It was funny when my ex-wife told me that the FBI had asked her  if I took
 trips out  of the  country with my plane.  I guess in their eyes, everyone
 who breaks the law is into drugs.  Even in my home  they thought  a bag of
 plaster of  Paris from  one of  my kid's hobby sets was some kind of drug.
 In reality I was afraid to fly my plane without an instructor.  After over
 50 hours,  I could take off and fly it but I don't land too well.  I guess
 I'll never be a pilot.

     The guns I bought turned out to be  a bad  idea because  of the stigma
 surrounding any  type of  weapon.  I didn't know anything about guns.  But
 when I saw on the news  that they  had put  a ban  on any  more imports of
 certain kinds of guns, and later my brother talked me into going to a Bill
 Goodman gun and knife show, I  realized that  they were  sure to  go up in
 value.   And it turned out as I expected.  The guns I bought are now worth
 over three times what I paid for them.   And  they were  all legally regi-
 stered, with $200.00 sent to the US government for each, with all the fin-
 gerprints, wavers  signed by  the local  sheriff and  90 day investigation
 done properly.   But  they didn't  charge me with illegal guns.  They just
 took them because I bought them  with illegally  gained money.   And every
 report has  mention of  them.  I also had a VCR, and a TV, but no one men-
 tioned them.  If they mention you have things as money, guns, or airplanes
 it helps  them make  you look  more like a gangster or something else bad.
 In advertising it's called sensationalism.  It's using  anything that gets
 a reaction from Joe public to achieve your goal.

     Most of  my days  were spent  on the phone helping people learn to use
 Apple software, since that was the only thing I still seemed to  enjoy.  I
 guess the  feeling that  you get  when you help someone learn something is
 the only enjoyment I could still get.  I spent my days  helping the people
 Apple should  have been  helping, and  they put me in jail.  Boy, that's a
 kick in the teeth.  I've  tried to  get help  from Apple  myself.   If the
 phones not  busy, and  you get through  to someone, they assume you are an
 idiot, and rush you off the phone as fast as they can.  In my case, I find
 I know more than most of the people I talk too.

     Today no  one knows the rules, and everyone is afraid to say anything.
 I asked an attorney recently if the way I was  selling a  computer scanner
 could be  against the  law, and  he told  me that if I thought it might be
 against the law he didn't want to know about it.  I had a meeting with the
 FBI,  where   I  was  questioned  about  consulting  with  many  attorneys
 concerning any trouble I  could get  into for  violating Apples copyright.
 When the  question came up, my attorney quickly announced that he had told
 me he didn't know the law  concerning copyright  violations, as  if he was
 defending himself.   I  talked with  three attorneys  to find  out if they
 could help me with this case,  and was  told the  FBI and  the IRS  are so
 powerful that  unless I  still have  lots of  money, or am squeaky clean I
 couldn't win.  One  of the  FBI or  IRS agents  told me  they have  a 97.8
 percent conviction  rate, which I guess means I'm to assume is because the
 are proficient in getting the real facts and evidence.  From all the inac-
 curate information  I've seen  them using, I find this hard to accept.
 When they came to search my home, they ran me off the  road in  a junk car
 that looked  as if  it had  a bunch of gangsters in it.  Then yanked my 11
 year old daughter out of the car hurting her arm.  Not seriously, however.
 They appeared  to be  excited because  their plans  of catching me at home
 were foiled by me taking my daughter to  her ice  skating class.   I guess
 they have  procedures, and  were only  doing their  job the  way they were
 trained.  I can't fault them with that.  I'm sure they didn't know what to
 expect.   I own guns, so I guess I could have been a crazy.  Actually I've
 only shot one of them once, on a farm.  They make too much  noise, and you
 can't hit  what you are aiming at.  The other ones I had reconditioned, so
 they would be attractive to, collectors,  and dealers.   And  I don't mean
 drug dealers.

     They served  me with a search and seizure warrant filled with manufac-
 tured evidence.  By whom I'm not  sure.    Most  paragraphs  ended  with a
 statement  that  quote  "The  information  provided  has been proved to be
 accurate and reliable by independent investigation."  And since most, were
 statements  that  I  supposedly  had  made, how do you prove them reliable
 unless someone else was standing there  at the  time, which  they weren't.
 Also for  me to have supposedly walked up to a bank manager and say I want
 to structure my transactions to avoid  paying income  tax would  really be
 insane.   And, as  I mentioned they denied it.  There are also many things
 which have been done,  which are  obviously illegal,  but to  mention them
 would put  individuals within  the system  in bad light, which is not what
 I'm trying to do here.

     I'm sorry if it appears that I'm trying  to excuse  my actions  by at-
 tacking the  system which  is charged  to uphold  the law.   But they have
 exaggerated, maybe even fabricated, and used whatever necessary to prosec-
 ute me,  for laws that most people don't know exist, and probably couldn't
 understand if they read them, so I feel I have the right  to bring  it all
 out.   Obviously I  can't blame  anyone for what I did.  No one twisted my
 arm.  It's just that they  have a  law for  almost everything  you do, and
 everyone is afraid to stand up against the system.  Even the people within
 the system.  They tried it in the 60s, and  lost.   And they  keep passing
 more laws.   I'm  waiting for them to attach at 25 year law to jaywalking.
 The way the laws are worded I bet, if you  made any  money doing  it, they
 could find  a way.  And the law they used was obviously  passed to be used
 against drug dealers.  Every other paragraph says something about drugs.

     The only thing I  know about  drugs is  what I  see on  television.  I
 tried marijuana  once in  the early  60s but  I don't  like the feeling of
 losing control of my faculties.   I won't  even have  more than  one drink
 when I  eat out.  And lately with the laws the way they are, I'm afraid to
 have even the one.  It really upsets me to think that, so many people, are
 so dissatisfied with their life that they need to use substances to escape
 from the  realities.   With all  the pressures  I've been  under lately it
 would be  so tempting to want to escape.  I realize it may help me escape,
 but it makes life harder on  those around  me who  are trying  to deal the
 best they can with life which is tough enough.

    Now I'm  being forced  to help  go after and prosecute other people who
 don't even know they are breaking the law, and are also not really hurting
 anyone.    I'm  being  asked  to  help convict xxxxxx.  Heck, I hear Apple
 didn't even know they  weren't real  until they  busted one  open xxxxxxxx
 and I  never talked  about it.  I'm not saying this to help xxxxx.  It's a
 shame, but he doesn't realize that,  if you  get their  attention, they're
 going to  get you.   They  decide if you broke the law or not.  The FBI is
 getting everyone these days.  I saw the other day on the  news, where they
 walked into  a hotel  room and  took tapes from CNN, without even a search
 warrant.  No wonder we get along with the USSR so well these days.   There
 doesn't appear  to be  much difference between the FBI and the KGB, except
 that I don't believe the FBI beats people.  Of course I'm not sure the KGB
 does anymore  either.   But it's  possible that  I'm wrong on both counts.
 This I find very distasteful, but if  I  don't  help  them  I'll  get more
 charges, which affects my family.

     We seem  to be  trying to  clear up all the crime in the world, with a
 big fervor.  What will we have, if we ever accomplish it.   For  one thing
 many unemployed  attorneys, agents,  and judges.  We'll all drive the same
 kind of car, because to think or be different from the next guy will  be a
 crime.   As people  begin obeying  most of  the heavy  laws, we will start
 charging people with looking  funny, so  the attorneys,  and law enforcers
 can hold on to their jobs.  First we will build more jails to hold all the
 violators, until half the population is in jail.   Then  as they  start to
 obey all  rules we will make up things that people are doing wrong.  Even-
 tually we will be  the  robots  that  the  futuristic  movies  talk about.
 Sounds ridiculous  doesn't it.  The Germans were almost able to do it with
 the Jews, but if history tells  us  anything,  eventually  the  people are
 going to be upset.

    I made some mistakes, and I'm not really blaming anyone.  I didn't know
 copyright violation was so serious, and the rest are just laws created for
 one thing then used for another, because they feel I was probably going to
 cheat on my taxes.  But that is the way the chips  fell, and  I'll take my
 punishment, and  try again  for the forth time.  I often wonder if I'm not
 really crazy, to keep trying when the obstacles are stacked so high.  They
 say a  new business  has a  one in  3000 chance  of making  it.  And their
 definition of making it is that they just continue to stay in business.  I
 bet the odds against making a profit are even higher.  For me, now it will
 be even harder.  I have a credit record that looks as if a bomb dropped on
 it, and  now I'm  a felon.  Well, only about 20 years left and I'll be too
 old to try.  But again my  grandfather  was  a  millionaire,  lost  it all
 betting on  the ponies,  as he called it, and at 98 he was still trying to
 get back to where he was.  I don't know if I can take another 40  years of

                      E N D   O F   S T A T E M E N T

The above was a statement prepared by D. Hayes to be read to the Judge at
the conclusion of Hayes' trial and sentencing.

     Part  II  of  this  article  will  appear next week, in it, the actual
     charges levied against D. Hayes are detailed and explained.


 > STR Portfolio News & Information?                  Keeping up to date...



     HyperList, a software "idea processor" for the Atari  palmtop personal
 computer, allows  users to  log and  categorize pieces of information into
 an MS-DOS (R)-uploadable format, anytime, anywhere.

     "This packages is a  "must have'  for anyone  who gathers, categorizes
 and prioritizes  personal and professional information and data on a daily
 basis," said Sam Tramiel, Atari Corporation  CEO.   "HyperList enables the
 user to  turn scattered bits and pieces of information into something that
 is organized and useful.  And, because it runs on the Portfolio,  data can
 be accessed whenever and wherever it's needed," he said.

     Using the  new package, Portfolio users can take simple lists and turn
 them  into hierarchial sublists or "HyperLists." For  example, salespeople
 can keep   lists  of clients  and sublists  of action  items under each of
 those clients.

     Lists and sublists are  displayed in  simple outline  format, but they
 are  really  much  more;  they  provide a comprehensive means of creating,
 arranging, manipulating, storing and reading HyperLists.

     HyperList differentiates itself from comparable "outliner" programs on
 the market  in several  ways.   First and  most importantly, HyperList was
 developed for the Atari Portfolio--ensuring that  personal organization is
 not restricted to the confines of a desktop personal computer.

     HyperList  also  displays  information  in  an exceptionally clear and
 concise format.  Sublevels are shown individually, rather that in a multi-
 ple level  format.   This provides  for a simple and orderly view which is
 especially easy-to-read on the 40-character x 8-line screen of the palmtop
 computer.  In addition, sublists are flush left, rather than tabbed to the
 right, keeping the number of lines to a minimum.

     Introduced in  April 1989,  the Atari  Computer Portfolio  was the in-
 dustry's first  MS-DOS 2.11  command-compatible palmtop personal computer.
 Small enough  to slip  into a  suitcoat pocket,  this one-pound powerhouse
 includes five internal software packages, 128K RAM and LCD display.

     HyperList will  be available  in January for a suggested list price of
 $49.95. The portfolio is  available immediately  with a  suggested list of
 $299.00 package" is a computer that's within everyone's reach.

                              Market Outlook

     According to  IDG, Input  and Dataquest  (independent research firms),
 the market for laptop computers will double to nearly $6  billion over the
 next three  years.  This growth is attributed the the number of people who
 intend to add laptops as second computers.

     By being first to  market  with  the  palmtop  personal  computer, and
 offering key  software and  peripherals, Atari  Computer is positioned for
 leadership in the pocket-sized portable niche market.

     The Portfolio, including a PC Card  Drive and  a 128K  RAM card  has a
 suggested U.S. retail of $499.95.  An optional AC Adapter lists for $9.95.
 The Serial Interface is  $79.95  and  the  Parallel  Interface  is $49.95.
 Additional Memory  cards are  32K, $79.95, 64K, $129.95 and 128K, $199.95.
 The Finance Card has a suggested retail of $89.95.  The DOS Utilities Card
 retails  for  $89.95  and  the  HyperList retails for $49.94.  The leather
 carrying case for the Portfolio is  available  at  a  suggested  retail of
 $39.95.   All are  available for  immediate delivery from Atari authorized
 dealers across the country.


 > STReport CONFIDENTIAL?                      "ATARI NEWS & EVENTS FIRST!"

 - Sunnyvale, CA                           STACY SUCCESSOR TO BE MAHVALOUS!

     The NEW Atari "Laptop" will be an excercise  in perfection.   The unit
 will be  the latest  Atari technology  including the  latest TOS.  It will
 not however, be in the STe family.  It will  have a  battery and  its sup-
 posed to  last at  least 2+ hrs.   The new  unit is alleged to be somewhat
 smaller in bulk and weight than the current laptop.

 - Sunnyvale, CA                              "BLACK FRIDAY" RUMORS ABOUND!

     At this point in time, that's all they  are.... Rumors!!   Rumors that
 more than just a few folks are "layed off" at Atari.  Rumors that the "so-
 called cryptograms" alluded to by a few 'less informed' collegues  are now
 about  to  come  to  pass.    Atari  was called for either verification or
 clarification and unfortunately, STReport found that the majority of folks
 were  unavailable  for  comment  (vacations,  home for the holidays etc.).
 STReport did however, manage to reach two responsible, well informed folks
 from Atari who emphasized that this, the latest in a long line of unfound-
 ed rumors, like the Stumph Rumor, is totally just that ..a rumor and a bad
 one at that.

 - Sunnyvale, CA                           2 DEALERS TO LOSE AUTHORIZATION!

     The names  of the  dealers have  been witheld  pending notification of
 revocation, but this much  is known;  Dealer "A"  in California,  has been
 selling  TOS  in  EPROM  chips  and  has  made  claims of "exclusivity" in
 distribution of certain software when it  was proven  to not  be the case.
 Dealer "B"  in Michigan,  has been  selling TOS in EPROM chips among other
 complaints in a list provided by Atarians in the area.   STReport applauds
 Atari  for  having  taken  definitive  steps in correcting one of the most
 serious of problems... Dealers  who  constantly  abuse  their  loyal Atari
 customers and  thus, give  all Atari Dealers a "black eye".  There is much
 more to this story that will remain untold unless revealed  by the dealers
 in question.  Time will tell.

 - Rockford, IL                 ICD RUMORED TO BE DEVELOPING AN 030 UPGRADE

     ICD Inc.  long on the cutting edge of innovative hardware and software
 designed to fully support the Atari ST platform  is rumored  to be heavily
 engaged in  the development  of its own 68030 upgrade for ST computer own-
 ers.  ICD, while enjoying an excellent reputation  for the  quality of its
 host adapters  that opened the world of hard drives to ST owners, has also
 recently introduced AdSpeed.   AdSpeed  is  ICD's  latest  entry  into the
 Atari  marketplace  and  has  literally  taken the market by storm.  ICD's
 ADSpeed has gained widespread acceptance in  the 16Mhz  accellerator field
 because it is fully compatible with one of the most popular artwork progr-
 ams, Spectrum 512 and  other programs  like Quantum  Paint, F-Copy  3, The
 ProCopy Series  and Cue  Base in the midi field.  ICD's Hard Drive Utility
 soft-ware, Cleanup and the software for use with the ICD  Tape Backup have
 only amplified the reliablity of ICD's R&D.  All their offerings to the ST
 community have been enthusiastically accepted.

 For further Information contact:

                             ICD Incorporated
                             1220 Rock Street
                            Rockford, IL  61101
                        (815) 968-2228 Information
                            (815) 968-6888 FAX




  ATARI CORPORATION                     Antic Direct
  1196 Borregas Avenue                  544 Second Street
  Sunnyvale, CA. 94086                  San Francisco, CA  94107
  (408) 745-2000                        (800) 234-7001
  Hardware - Software                   Psygnosis Games etc...

  ABCO Computer Electronics             Gribnif Software
  P.O. Box 6672                         P.O. Box 350
  Jacksonville, FL. 32221               Hadley, MA 01035
  (800) 562-4037                        (413) 584-7887
  Hard Disks & Supplies                 NeoDesk & Turbo C

  1ST Stop Computers                    Horizon Computers
  7085 Corporate Way                    695 S. Colorado Blvd., #10
  Centerville, OH 45459                 Denver, CO  80222
  (800) 252-2787                        (303) 777-8080
  Full Line Dealer                      Authorized Atari Dealer

  A & D Software                        ISD Marketing Inc.
  226 NW 'F' Street                     2651 John St., Unit #3
  Grants Pass, OR 97526                 Markham, Ontario, CA *L3R 2W5
  (503) 476-0071                        (416) 479-1880
  Universal Item Selector               Calamus, DynaCadd etc...

  Alpha Systems                         L & Y Computers
  1012 Skyland                          13644c Jefferson Davis H'wy.
  Macedonia, OH 44056                   Woodbridge, Va.  22191
  (216) 467-5665                        (703) 494-3444
  16 and 8 bit Support                  Atari products and Software

  ASDE Inc.                             Maxwell CPU
  151 Rue Jolicoeur                     2124 W. Centennial Dr.
  Hull, Quebec Canada J8Z1C8            Louisville, CO  80027
  (819) 770-7681                        (303) 666-7754
  Geography Tutor etc...                Expose - Silhouette

  Atari Interface Magazine              Step Ahead Software Inc.
  3487 Braeburn Circle                  496-A Hudson Street Suite F39
  Ann Arbor, MI 48108                   New York City, N.Y.  10014
  (313) 973-8825                        (212) 627-5830
  Atari Magazine and Monthly Disk       Tracker ST

  B&C ComputerVisions                   Mars Merchandising
  3257 Kifer Road                       1041b St. Charles Rd.
  Santa Clara, CA 95051                 Lombard Il.
  (408) 749-1003                        (817) 589-2950
  Atari Products & Supplies             Atari Products & Accs.

  Branch Always Software                Lantech
  14150 N.E. 20th St.                   PO Box R
  Bellevue, WA 98007                    Billerica, MA  01821
  (206) 885-5893                        (508) 667-9191
  Quick ST, Software                    10 Megabit Local Area Network

  Best Electronics                      Migraph Inc.
  2021 The Alameda Suite 290            200 S. 333rd St.
  San Jose,  CA  95126                  Federal Way, WA 98003
  (408) 243-6950                        (206) 838-4677
  THE Atari parts source & Supplies     Top Notch Graphical Products

  Computer Garden                       MicroTyme
  WestSide Mall                         4049 Marshall Road
  Edwardsville, PA  18704               Kettering, OH  45429
  (800) 456-5689                        (800) 255-5835
  Discount Software                     Discount Hardware & Software

  Carter Graphics & Computers           Practical Solutions Inc.
  914 W. Sunset Blvd.                   1135 N. Jones Blvd.
  St. George, UT 84770                  Tucson, AZ 85716
  (801) 628-6111                        (602) 322-6100
  Atari Products                        Atari support products

  CodeHead Software                     Prospero Software
  P.O. Box 74090                        100 Commercial St.
  Los Angeles, CA 90004                 Suite 306 Portland, ME 04101
  (213) 386-5735                        (207) 874-0382
  Software Products "Codekeys"          Software Products

  Comput-Ability                        Rio Datel Computers
  P.O. Box 17882                        3430 E. Tropicana Ave., #65
  Milwaukee, WI 53217                   Las Vegas, NE 89121
  (414) 357-8181                        (800) 782-9110
  Atari Products & Distributor          International Products

  CompuServe Information Service        San Jose Computers
  P. O. Box 20212                       640 Blossom Hill Road
  Columbus, OH 43220-0212               San Jose, CA 95123
  (614) 457-0802                        (408) 224-8575
  Online Services                       Atari Products

  D.A. Brumleve                         Seagate Technology
  607 West Illinois Street              920 Disc Drive
  Urbana, IL  61801                     Scotts Valley, CA 95066
  (217) 337-0674                        (800) 468-3472
  High Quality Kiddie Software          Hard Drive Mechanisms

  Debonair Software                     Sideline Software
  P.O. Box 521166                       840 NW 57th Court
  Salt Lake City, UT 84152              Fort Lauderdale, FL 33309
  EL CAL The Math Machine               (305) 771-9035
  Atari Support Products                International Software Source

  D & P Computer                        SofTrek
  P.O. Box 811                          P.O. Box 5257
  Elyria, Ohio 44036                    Winter Park, FL 32793
  (800) 535-4290                        (407) 657-4611
  Atari Support Products                TurboST "The Software Blitter"

  Double Click Software                 ST Informer
  P.O. Box 741206                       909 NW Starlite Place
  Houston, TX 77274                     Grants Pass OR  97526
  (712) 977-6520                        (503) 476-0071
  Software Developer                    Monthly Newspaper

  Duggan DeZign Inc.                    Strata Software
  16 Oak Ridge Dr.                      94 Rowe Drive
  West Warwick RI 02893                 Kanata Ontario Canada K2L 3Y9
  (401) 826-2961                        (613) 591-1922
  "Designs with Fun in Mind!"           Stalker/Steno TeleCom

  Fast Technology                       Talon Technology
  P.O. Box 578                          243 N. Hwy. 101, Ste 11
  Amdover, MA 01810                     Solana Beach, CA 92075
  (508) 475-3810                        (619) 792-6511
  16Mhz 68000 Accelerator               Supercharger IBM Emulator

  Gadgets by Small                      Toad Computers
  40 W. Littleton Blvd.                 556 Baltimore Annapolis Blvd.
  #210-211, Littleton, CO 80120         Severna Park, MD 21146
  (303) 791-6098                        (301) 544-6943
  Spectre GCR MAC Emulator              Mass Storage & Atari Prod.

  Goldleaf Publishing, Inc.             WuzTEK Omnimon Peripherals
  700 Larkspur Landing Circle,          One Tech Dr. Bldg. 1E, #301
  Suite 199  Larkspur, CA 94939         Irvine, CA 92718
  (415) 461-5703                        (714) 753-9253
  WordFlair Document Processor          Atari support products

  Dr. Bobware                           Wiz Works!
  180 N. Hazeltine Avenue               P.O. Box 45
  Campbell, OH.  44405-1024             Girard, OH.  44420
  (216) 743-4712                        (216) 539-5623
  MVG & Modules  Graphics               Image Cat - MugShot!

  GEnie Information Services            Taylor Ridge Books
  401 N. Washington Street              P.O. Box 48
  Rockville, MD 20850-1785              Manchester, Ct.  06040
  (800) 638-9636                        (203) 643-9673
  Online Services                       Cmanship  'C' programming

  Hayes Microcomputer Inc.              US ROBOTICS INC.
  705 Westech Drive                     8100 No. McCormick Blvd.
  Norcross, GA  30092                   Skokie, IL  60076
  (404) 662-7100                        (800) 982-5151
  Modems - TeleCom                      Modems-BBS Sysop Program

  ICD Inc.                              Soft Logik
  1220 Rock St.                         11131F S. Towne Sq.
  Rockford, Il. 61101-1437              St Louis, MO  63123
  (815) 968-2228                        (314) 894-8608
  Hardware Peripherals                  PageStream DTP Software

  Innovative Concepts (I.C.)            Hybrid Arts Inc.
  31172 Shawn Drive                     8522 National Blvd.
  Warren, MI 48093                      Los Angeles, CA  90232
  (313) 293-0730                        (213) 841-0340
  Full Service Dealer                   Software for the Musician

  Mirrorsoft Ltd                        Supra Corp.
  118 Southwark St.                     1133 Commercial Way
  London, UK SEI OSW                    Albany, OR  97321
  011-43-928-1454                       (503) 967-9075
  UK Software Dev.                      Modems - Hard Drives

  GT Software                           Word Perfect Corp.
  12114 Kirton Avenue                   1555 Technology Way
  Cleveland OH  44135                   Orem, UT  84057
  (216) 252-8255                        (801) 222-5800
  Sofware Dev.                          Word Perfect wp

  Spectrum HoloByte                     STR Publishing Inc.
  2061 Challenger Dr.                   PO Box 6672
  Alamedo, CA  94501                    Jacksonville, FL 32205
  (415) 522-3584                        (800) 562-4037
  Falcon F16 Software                   STReport Online Magazine


 > Hard Disks STR InfoFile?                     Affordable Mass Storage....

                      NEW LOW PRICES! & MORE MODELS!!
                             HOLIDAY SPECIALS!
                       ** EFFECTIVE IMMEDIATELY! **

                      ABCO COMPUTER ELECTRONICS INC.
              P.O. Box 6672  Jacksonville, Florida 32236-6672
                                Est.  1985

                   Voice: 904-783-3319  10 AM - 4 PM EDT
                     BBS: 904-786-4176   12-24-96 HST
                    FAX: 904-783-3319  12 PM - 6 AM EDT


   All systems are complete and ready to use, included at NO EXTRA COST
                 are clock/calendar and cooling blower(s).

                 (you are NOT limited to two drives ONLY!)
                   (all cables and connectors installed)


                           Conventional Shoe Box
            Model        Description      Autopark       Price
            SGN3038      31Mb 28ms   3.5"    Y          419.00
            SGN4951      51Mb 28ms   3.5"    Y          519.00
            SGN6177      62Mb 24ms   3.5"    Y          619.00
            SGN1096      85Mb 24ms   3.5"    Y          649.00
            SGN6277     120Mb 24ms   3.5"    Y          889.00
            SGN1296     168Mb 24ms   3.5"    Y         1069.00
            SGN4077     230Mb 24ms   3.5"    Y         1669.00


            20mb #AI020SC   379.95      30mb #AIO3OSC   419.95
            50mb #AI050SC   449.95      65mb #AI065SC   499.95
                          85mb #AI085SC  $559.95
                       MEGA ST Internal Hard Drives

                     (500 - 600k per sec @ 16 - 33ms)

                         FROM 30mb 28MS @ $419.00!
                      Ask about our "REBATE SPECIALS"




       * SYQUEST 44MB (#555)>> ABCO "44" << REMOVABLE MEDIA DRIVE *

          - ICD Utility Software        - 3' DMA Cable
          - Fan & Clock                 - Multi-Unit Power Supply
                          (1) 44 MB Syquest Cart.

                 --->> SPECIAL NOW ONLY __$ 719.00__ <<---
                        EXTRA CARTS:      $  79.50
                        DRIVE MECH ONLY:  $ 439.95

                       ***** for $75.00 LESS! *****

                       SPECIALLY PRICED ** $1329.00 **

         - Syquest 44 Model [555] and the following hard drives -
             50mb SQG51   $ 939.00      30mb SQG38    $ 819.00
             65mb SQG09   $ 969.00      85mb SQG96    $1059.00

           Listed above are a sampling of the systems available.
      Prices also reflect various cabinet/power supply configurations
    (over sixty configurations are available, flexibility is unlimited)

            *** ALL Units: Average Access Time: 24ms - 34ms ***

             LARGER units are available - (special order only)

                      *>> NO REPACKS OR REFURBS USED! <<*

       - Custom Walnut WOODEN Cabinets - TOWER - AT - XT Cabinets -
            * SLM 804 Replacement Toner Cartridge Kits $42.95 *
                          Replacement Drums; CALL
                   Keyboard Custom Cables Call for Info
                      ALL POWER SUPPLIES UL APPROVED

                       -* 12 month FULL Guarantee *-
                         (A FULL YEAR of COVERAGE)


                     DEALERS and DISTRIBUTORS WANTED!
                         please, call for details

                 Personal and Company Checks are accepted.

                        ORDER YOUR NEW UNIT TODAY!

           CALL: 1-800-562-4037   -=**=-    CALL: 1-904-783-3319
           Customer Orders ONLY               Customer Service
                                9am - 8pm EDT
                                Tues thru Sat


 > A "Quotable Quote"?

                   "WE HAVE MET THE ENEMY AND HE IS US!"

                                                  ...Tony "The Rug"

           A store room... is a store room... is a store room...

                        STReport Online Magazine?
     Available through more than 10,000 Private BBS systems WorldWide!
 STReport?           "YOUR INDEPENDENT NEWS SOURCE"       December 28, 1990
 16/32bit Magazine           copyright = 1990                   No.6.52
 Views, Opinions and Articles Presented herein are not necessarily those of
 the  editors,  staff,  STReport?  CPU/STR?  or  ST Report?.  Permission to
 reprint articles is hereby granted, unless otherwise noted.   Each reprint
 must include  the name of the publication, date, issue #  and the author's
 name.  The entire publication and/or portions therein may not be edited in
 any way  without prior  written permission.   The contents, at the time of
 publication, are   believed  to  be  reasonably  accurate.    The editors,
 contributors and/or  staff are  not responsible  for either the use/misuse
 of information contained herein or the results obtained therefrom.

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