12 AC Outlet Controller
The control of household devices that run on alternating current (AC) is one of the most often discussed applications for the home computer. Most people assume that this type of control requires complicated electronic circuits. In fact, it is not difficult to design or build a computer controlled AC outlet and, thanks to the availability of solid state relays, it is only moderately expensive to add this capability to your home computer. These relays use solid state components, usually triacs, to control normal AC current with a low-power digital signal. The Computer Controlled AC Outlet is little more than a normal outlet box with the addition of a solid state relay and two cables connecting it to the computer and the AC power supply.
The Apple has four annunciator outputs that can directly drive these relays. Other computers, like the Commodore VIC-20, have pushbutton inputs that can be converted to digital outputs by setting soft switches in the computer's memory. Solid state relays will work well with these systems, too.
THE AC RELAY
The input of a 5-volt solid state relay requires little current and can be driven by outputs rated at 1 TTL (transistor-transistor logic), which is approximately 5 milliamps at 5 volts. The 74LS chips referred to in these projects are TTL chips. By comparison, a single LED requires about 20 milliamps for normal light levels and may overload annunciator outputs.
The output of a solid state relay is rated by the maximum current (measured in amps) it can carry and the maximum RMS AC voltage it can control. Inexpensive relays are usually rated between 4 and 10 amps of 110 volts AC. More expensive ones (up to 40 amps of 440 volts) can be purchased for controlling higher-powered equipment.
Solid state relays handle only alternating current. They can turn on direct current but they can't turn it off. These relays have no internal moving parts or contacts to wear out. They should last for many years if they aren't cooked to death by extensive overheating or shorted out by a voltage spike.
The current ratings given in manufacturers' data sheets are for resistive loads, like incandescent lamps or resistance heaters. To use the relays on inductive loads (e.g., motors and heavy transformer devices), you must purchase relays that have about twice the rating of the device's normal operating current. To protect the relay from voltage spikes, particularly those caused by suddenly turning.off an inductive load, you must add a varistor, as shown in figure 12-2.
To protect the relay from overheating, make certain that its metal bottom is in good thermal contact with a metal heat sink. If the relay is mounted in a heavy metal box and the back of the box is exposed to free air, a small relay will be cooled adequately. For higher powered and multiple relays you may have to install an aluminum heat sink in the back of the box and space the relays an inch or more apart. Use a heat conductive compound like Radio Shack #276-1372 on the metal backs of the relays to improve heat transfer. Since the relay backs are insulated from the AC, you don't need a layer of electrical insulation between the relay and the box.
Good news: There has been a recent breakthrough in the manufacture of solid state relays. The new technology, called S3X, lets the relays function with fewer parts than the present design. The new units exhibit markedly better performance with inductive loads and will generally run cooler. These relays should be available soon, and perhaps we'll be able to purchase the old style units at cheaper prices from the surplus houses.
The solid state relays for the prototype conduit box were purchased from PolyPaks (see the parts list for their address). They are smaller than most other solid state relays and have solder terminals instead of the usual screw terminals. You may be able to get them from PolyPaks or from another surplus electronics company. If not, the standard commercial relays are a stock item at Newark and other large houses. If you can't obtain the small relays, you will need a box larger than the 4-inch square indicated in the parts list.
The prototype box has a cover for two duplex outlets and two cable clamps. One or even two of the smallest AC relays can be mounted in this box, taking the place of one of the outlets.
To be absolutely certain that the AC wires will not make contact with the wires running to the computer, you should fashion a sheet metal partition to divide the relays into two sections. First make a cardboard pattern and then cut the partition out with tin snips. Attach the partition to the box with bolts or pop rivets. You can also make a sheet metal hanger for the back of the box, or devise some other mounting arrangement. You should also cover two of the outlet holes with a piece of sheet metal.
For larger or more powerful systems (more than two outlets or more than 10 amps total) you will need a bigger electrical box. Called NEMA boxes (National Electrical Manufacturers Association), these can be either #4 (vented) or #12 (sealed). For extremely high-powered systems (4 kilowatt or greater) you will have to cut the back out of the box and replace it with a large aluminum heat sink. You could make your own box out of sheet metal or other non-flammable material. On a large system the loads should probably be cabled directly to the relays without the use of sockets and plugs.
The cable that runs from the box to the computer will be too small for normal electrical cable clamps. You can use a strain relief (Radio Shack #278-1636) instead, or enclose the cable in tape and heat shrinkable tubing.
The wiring in this project is similar to that of the Desk Switched Outlet Box in chapter 11. Once again, it is necessary to follow the electrical code guidelines, so review them before starting to wire this unit (see the section on AC codes in the Electronics Tutorial).
Figure 12-2 is the schematic for a two-relay system. The power cable is a 3-wire #14 extension cord with the outlet end cut off. If you are using two relays on the same outlet you must separate the two sockets electrically. Break off the small metal bridge between the two brass screws on the black wire side only. For currents of up to 10 amps, #14 wire will be adequate. For high-current systems you will need #12 or larger wire.
The two varistors shown in figure 12-2 provide protection from voltage spikes. These are necessary to control inductive loads like motors or flourescent lights.
The current in the control lines to the computer is so inconsequential that extremely small wire in this cable will meet the electrical requirements. You will, however, need a cable that is strong enough to withstand a reasonable amount of wear. If you have extra wires in the cable it is a good idea to double up the ground wire.
The best plug for the AC outlet box is a stacked plug similar to the one described in chapter 3. All the pins of this one, however, should pass straight through, with no tricky crossovers. A stacked plug lets you plug in the AC outlet box and still use conventional controllers, providing they do not require the annunciator outputs.
The outlet box must only be used with 3-prong grounded systems. You must clip or screw the green wire of the power cord to the metal box and connect the green screws on the outlets to the box with green wires.
If you like, you can add a fuse and fuse holder or circuit breaker for each circuit. As noted for other special features, this may necessitate using a larger box.
Check your wiring using the procedures we have described for coloring in two copies of the schematic. After you have finished the connections, assemble the box and tighten the cable clamps. Before testing the unit on your computer, you should plug it into a household outlet. With a multimeter, measure the AC voltage between each of the computer connector leads and the metal box to be sure that no AC is read on any of the pins. Plug an incandescent lamp into the AC outlet box; the lamp should not come on.
Now unplug the outlet box from the wall. Make sure your computer is turned off. Install the plug into the computer's game control socket, plug the outlet box into house current, and turn on the computer. If the computer doesn't start up in a completely normal fashion, turn it off immediately, unplug everything, and recheck all your work.
Run the Annunciator Checkout program in the software chapter. A lamp plugged into this controlled socket should turn on and off as the checkout program runs.
How large an AC control system could an Apple handle? Each of the four annunciator outputs could control a relay, and the relays are available with ratings up to 40 amps at 440 volts. If you want to get serious, however, you will have to add a simple multiplexing card (four 74LS chips). The four annunciator inputs and the strobe line could then drive 32 relays, for a total of 560 kilowatts. That should be enough power to provide the mind-boggling light show for a "Who" concert.
AC Outlet Controller
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