V. STATE-OF-THE-ART Research in the field of artificial intelligence has yielded much fruit since its infancy only twenty-five years ago. But the fruit it has borne is nothing compared to what it must bear in the future if it is to realize the predictions of its adherents. Accomplishments Artificial intelligence is a regenerative science; that is, accomplishments of today rapidly build those of tomorrow. This can probably be said about any field of endeavor, but nowhere is it more true than here. The reason being that, as we progress, the computer becomes stronger and more capable of aiding the researcher in his quest. Research in artificial intelligence has given various byproducts such as assembly programs, debugging programs, test editing programs, and even a good mechanical arm developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. There have been programs written that compose music and some that find chemical structures. In addition, there have been extremely complex programs written which handle such diverse tasks as traffic control, aiding architectural design, aiding electronic circuit design, monitoring patients in a hospital, and simulating chemical reactions. By definition, artificial intelligence must have the ability to adapt to its environment and react to totally unforeseen circumstances. Although much has been accomplished, almost all computer applications fail to qualify as artificial intelligence under this definition. Goals The basic problem in artificial intelligence, as yet unresolved, is that all alternatives must be made explicit. Ways must be found for programs to determine useful information out of collections of seemingly random bits of information. Computer programs must have shortcuts, similar in nature to those used by the human brain, built into them. In addition, they must be able to deal with facts about objects, relations between objects, and facts about facts. Also, all behaviors must be representable by the program, and it must be able to have or evolve concepts of partial success. Furthermore, creative purpose is absent in the computer. In the words of Donald G. Fink: "At best, today's computers can only assist man in creative work." If artificial intelligence is to become an actuality, then one of the highest goals of the researcher must be to find ways to give machines creative purpose. Computers are not constrained by a sociological environment; their only limitations are imposed by the programs given to them. Therefore, we must be sure that the 'top goal' given to a highly intelligent machine be the welfare of humanity, and not some private goal of the machine. As David Kendall said in the preface of a 1967 book of collected papers on machine intelligence: "Thus a study of 'Machine Intelligence' leads after yet one more remove to the ancient imperative, 'know thyself' and the universal problem of coexistence." Predictions There have been many predictions made in regard to the progress of artificial intelligence research. Among these is the 1965 prediction by Simon that: "…machines will be capable, within twenty years, of doing any work that a man can do." On the other side of the coin is the statement by P. E. Greenwood: "From the brief summary of the state of the art of artificial intelligence, one would conclude that little progress has been made since about 1960 and the prospects for the near future are not bright." Whichever side one decides to take, there are ample adherents to each. Marvin Minsky sums it up nicely: Once we have devised programs with a genuine capacity for self-improvement a rapid evolutionary process will begin. As the machine improves both itself and its model of itself, we shall begin to see all the phenomena associated with the terms 'consciousness,' 'intuition' and 'intelligence' itself. It is hard to say how close we are to this threshold, but once it is crossed the world will not be the same. VI. CONCLUSION Artificial intelligence is a young science. Only time and the persistence of artificial intelligence researchers will reveal the full measure of its potential. The late A.M. Turing laid down a test for adaptive intelligence. The test, which has come to be known widely as the Turing Test, is very simple. It consists of a man (the examiner) trying to discern whether or not the responses to questions he has proposed are being answered by a computer or another man. The test is conducted in such a way that the questioner can not physically determine which respondent has produced the response to his question; he must make the determination solely from the answer itself. So far, no one has been able to write a program that can consistently fool the examiner in the Turing Test. 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