ST Report: 2-Apr-93 #914

From: Bruce D. Nelson (aa789@cleveland.Freenet.Edu)
Date: 04/03/93-10:07:53 AM Z

From: aa789@cleveland.Freenet.Edu (Bruce D. Nelson)
Subject: ST Report: 2-Apr-93 #914
Date: Sat Apr  3 10:07:53 1993

            *---== STReport International Online Magazine ==---*
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                              STR Publishing 

 April 02, 1993                                                     No.9.14

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> 04/02/93 STR 914    "The Original * Independent * Online Magazine!"
     - The Editor's Desk      - CPU Report        - PORTFOLIO NEWS
     - Logitech News          - Pixel Mania       - An OLD Story
     - CTFEST'93              - GEMVIEW UPDATE    - PEOPLE ARE TALKING
     - STR MAILCALL           - MOTOROLA & IBM    - STR Confidential

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                  WHAT'S NEW IN THE ATARI FORUMS (April 2)


The Atari Forums will be participating in the fifth update  of GO GRAPHICS,
a picture catalog  of some of the finest GIF  images available for download
from  CompuServe!    We'll  be  compiling  our  listing  for  inclusion  by
mid-April.  Be sure to upload your new GIF pictures as soon as possible!


Download  file GVIEW2.ZIP  from  LIBRARY 14  of  the Atari  Arts  Forum (GO
ATARIARTS)  for version  2.20 of  GEMVIEW:   The "view anything  fully" GEM
graphics file viewer.


The  long-awaited update  to PicSwitch  is available  for download  as file
PICSW1.LZH  in LIBRARY  14 of  the Atari  Arts Forum  (GO  ATARIARTS). This
version  is  completely   overhauled,  with  an  easy-to-use   enhanced-GEM
interface with  customizable windows, Mac-like controls,  and pop-up menus.
Supports  20 different  image formats,  now  including GIF,  IMG, Spectrum,
Prism Paint, PCX, and IFF.


SoftLogik  has made  the following  two files  available for  download from
LIBRARY 11 of the Atari Vendors Forum (GO ATARIVEN):

PS2299.ARC  -   PostScript  printer  driver  for   ImageSetters  and  Color
PostScript printers version 2.2.99.  This  is a temporary driver that fixes
problems with v2.2.11 printing to Linos and Color PS printers.

PS2211.ARC - Newest PostScript printer  driver version 2.2.11. This  driver
is  good   for users printing  to PostScript  lasers. For  users needing to
print to  Color PS and  high-rez imagesetters,  you should use  the v2.2.99


Download file 4CORN1.ZIP from  LIBRARY 4 of the  Atari Portfolio Forum  (GO
APORTFOLIO) and try your hand at this card game.  The goal is to  place the
KINGS,  QUEENS, and JACKS  only in their  proper places on  the game board.
Requires PBASIC.

                           HAS BEEN DESIGNATED AN



> From the Editor's Desk             "Saying it like it is!"

     Here it is... April 2, 1993 and the "countdown" is still on!  It's
utterly incredible to see this actually happening.  On top of which, the
dumbfounding silence from Atari's communicative master is absolutely
astounding.  At a time when they could use all the help they can get in
spreading the 'word', that department decides to become ultra selective in
its avenues of information release.   CeBiT closed down Wednesday of this
past week.  Has the Atari community world wide heard anything from Atari's 
"Director of Communications" about the show?  This type action is no longer
counter productive..It's suicidal.  Will the Tramiels wake up in time?  Who
knows?  Admittedly, they're like cats, in as much as, they seem to have
nine lives.  How long can this 'charm' last?  

     To tell it like it is....  One can go anywhere and obtain 1st class
support for either a Mac or a PC.  One can get the very latest in software
for those platforms at almost every corner.   The biggest thing we get from
Atari is empty promises and purposeful obsolescence.  (The SLM thing)   Of
course, there's no need to mention the GUFF and slimeball politics we all
are forced to endure at the hands of one obviously obsessed fanatic at
Atari.  Its because of his deeds that many of today's happenings are
evident.  Many folks out there would not be so quick to "jump Atari's
bones" had this fanatic been more professional if not downright civil is
his "dealings".  He's exposed his true 'self' to far too many people in the
last three years and it's now catching up with him rapidly.

     Regrettably, it appears Atari is in need of a _real_ "firefighter" to
put out the raging infernos on several fronts.  The consumer front, the
supply side front and the most serious of all, the devastated public
relations front.  I only hope it's not too late.  Far too many people in
the computing community either have or are turning a deaf ear to Atari
because of too many "less than pleasant" experiences.  It's truly sad, they
(Atari) could have had it all.

     There are those who are easily infuriated by those who point out these
matters to Atari and its userbase.  Then, there'll always be those who try
to make good news by silencing all but the good news.  Odd though, here of
late, the silence could really get loud.  Finally, there are those who try
to make a atrocious scene in an attempt to discredit others. 
Unfortunately, all they pitifully accomplish is to make total fools of
themselves.  Come to think of it, all Atari really has to do is get the
Falcon out the door in respectable numbers and advertise.  Think it'll ever

     How many years in a row has Atari gone to Europe first with product? 
People now say; "look at all the great support in third party hardware and
software coming out of Europe".  They're right but when one must consider
personal support it can become very expensive.  In fact, it actually
discourages many potential users.  

     Now, with the remainder of the world market firmly entrenched with Big
Blue and Apple, Atari has its work cut out for them.  I'm willing to bet we
get more excuses and apologists than positive results.  Any takers?



 STReport's Staff                      DEDICATED TO SERVING YOU!

                             Publisher - Editor
                              Ralph F. Mariano

          -----------         --------------           ------------
          Roger D. Stevens    Robert Glover            R. ALBRITTON

 STReport Staff Editors:
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          Lucien Oppler       Brad Martin              Judith Hamner
          John Szczepanik     Dan Stidham              Joseph Mirando
                    Steve Spivey        Doyle C. Helms

                      Lloyd E. Pulley, Editor Emeritus

 Contributing Correspondents:
          Michael Lee         Richard Covert           Scott Birch
          Brian Converse      Oliver Steinmeier        Tim Holt
          Andrew Learner      Norman Boucher           Harry Steele
          Clemens Chin        Neil Bradley             Eric Jerue
          Ron Deal            Robert Dean              Ed Westhusing
          James Nolan         Vernon W. Smith          Bruno Puglia

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                      STR'S "BELIEVE IT?  OR.. WHAT?"

                 "There is no comparison!  The Atari Falcon
                    is far superior to the PC platform."

                                                  Sam Tramiel, 08/92

About the scathing Forbes Magazine Critique of Atari;

     "My new  office, which has  a better view than  my old one,  is so far
     quite satisfactory.   And  Richard Miller  is in my  old office.   The
     Forbes article was a  mish-mash and misconstrued article full  of half
     truths.  We are anxiously awaiting the release of the  Atari Falcon to
     bring us back to the forefront.  The article has given us some 
laughs, but otherwise has not affected us."

                                                  Sam Tramiel, 08/92

About marketing plans and the future....

     "As  I  said  before, all  marketing  announcements  will  be made  at
     Duesseldorf.  I will not comment on future models of the Falcon.

                     WHICH WILL BE SHIPPING NEXT WEEK."

                                                  Sam Tramiel, 08/92

A fantastic observation, considering the date it was made...

     "I've just returned from Asia, where I saw the first Atari Falcon
     production coming off the lines.  Let's hope this new offering will
     make it in North America.  I know that the specs are great."

                                                  Sam Tramiel, 08/92

Again, the dates of the statement conflict with the facts now known....

     "We have not  yet even given the machine to the  FCC.  And we are only
     applying for Class B  approval.  According to our "experts", it should
     pass Class B."

                                                  Sam Tramiel, 08/92

             "......  We are not working for Wall Street but to
         make money for our shareholders and only think long term."

                                                  Sam Tramiel, 11/92

              FYI.... The Shareholder's equity is fine.... NOT!

                    The Stock is hovering around $1.12 

                     CHRISTMAS '92 has COME and GONE...

                       JANUARY 1993, FEBRUARY 1993...

                           FALCONS    ....anyone?

                  By the Way.... Does the Falcon work well
            any... of the SLM Laser Printers??  NOPE!  NOT YET!

Better yet... 

             Which _MAJOR_ US Software Developers & Publishers
                producing NEW Software for Atari's FALCON???

               Besides, who _needs_ a CARTRIDGE PORT anyhow!


> ONLINE WEEKLY STReport OnLine          The wires are a hummin'!
                            PEOPLE... ARE TALKING
 On CompuServe
 compiled by Joe Mirando

Hey folks!  I don't know about you, but this has been one heck of a week
for me.  Between the snow, rain, flu, and income tax, I'm really beat.

I guess that things could have been worse, though.  I could have had
computer problems on top of everything else.  Well, at least with computer
problems, I can get help on CompuServe.  Now, if only I could deal with the
IRS as easily...

Okay, maybe I can forget about my taxes for a while if we jump right into
the messages...

>From the Atari Productivity Forum

Have you ever wondered what those nasty little bombs on your screen mean?
Sure, they mean that something's gone "belly-up" in your system, but was it
the program or the memory, or gremlins, or... or..., well, you get the

Tim Myers tells Haj Baxter:

     "To the best of my knowledge the bombs mean;

     2  BUS ERROR (prg trying to access a non existent address in memory) 

     3  ADDRESS ERROR (to do with accessing instructions integers etc from
        an odd-numbered memory location)

     4  ILLEGAL INSTRUCTION (the cpu tried to execute a memory location    

        that did not contain a valid 68000 instruction)

     5  ZERO DIVIDE (a number was divided by zero giving an undefined      


     6  CHK INSTRUCTION (the program was supposed to replace the instr with
        another number,  I think!)

     7  TRAPV INSTRUCTION (happens when there is an overflow in an      
        arithmetic operation)

     8  PRIVILEGE VIOLATION (a supervisor mode instruction was given to the
        cpu whilst in user mode)

     9  TRACE ERROR (used in debugging programs)

     24 SPURIOUS INTERRUPT (a bus error has occurred during a system   

     >And what is a Tos error #35?

     I think this is FILE NOT FOUND or a problem, opening/reading/writing a

     >or 1286? or 1492? 0r 1812???

     No idea I'm afraid.

     Most of these problems are caused by other software running at the
     same time eg., desk accessories, ram disks, etc.

     Try running the program in question on a 'clean' system, ie no auto
     folder programs and rename all your accs to acx then reboot. Then run
     the prg. If the problem persists seek advice from other users of the

Alex Kiernan adds some info about TOS Error # 35 (it kind of sounds like a
b-grade sci-fi movie, doesn't it?  Oh, never mind.  I was thinking of "Plan
9 From Outer Space).  Anyway, Alex adds:

     "TOS error 35 when reported _by_the_desktop_ is broken executable
     file. The real error number is -66, but because of the way the AES
     handles error numbers they get mutated into TOS error 35 when

Tim Myers, always being one to give credit where credit is due, tells Alex:

     "Cheers for that info Alex !  I'll add it to my collection of Atari
     bits and bobs. It's a shame IMO that the average user doesn't get a
     quick run down of the bombs and common error meanings in the user
     manuals. We have to piece it together ourselves half of the time !"

Now see that?  Can there be anyone more knowledgeable about things Atari
than these two guys?  Hey, who's that coming this way?  Oh no!  It's a
bird, it's a plane, it's... it's Albert Dayes of Atari Explorer Online!
Faster than a TT!  Able to leap tall data stacks with a single bound!
Fighting for truth, justice, and knowledge for all!  (sorry Albert, but I
have gone too easy on you for the past few issues ;^)

Albert tells us all:

     "There is a file called BOMBS.TXT that details their meaning in the

Geoff Larsen (in New Zealand, I believe), posts a quick note about the

     "OK, The latest down here is, a 4/65 Falcon with all the original
     bell's and whistles.  Every thing else is on the back burner for the
     time being. That's the "Official Word" from Atari, Sydney, Australia. 
     They are shipping in limited quantities and they are 4/65's. So I
     suppose down here at least they are telling the truth. I suppose it's
     logical, everybody down at the user group want to have an ST with
     4Meg's and a hard drive. So if they upgrade to a Falcon they will get
     4 Meg's and a hard drive plus."

Nigel Holmes asks about using his Mac as a "file-gopher" for his ST:

     "help ! I'm new  at this at the moment i am using a mac IIsi what I
     would like to do is down load utils etc onto the mac but then run them
     on the atari 1040st I have at home is this possible and if so how??"

Albert Dayes tells Nigel:

     "I suppose it would work assuming Mac-binary is not used.  Just do a
     normal x-modem transfer.  Format a 720k ms-dos compatible floppy disk
     under Apple File exchange.  Then put the floppy in the 1040ST drive
     and it should work. Actually the file transfer method shouldn't make a

Didn't I tell you?  Albert knows just about everything there is to know
about using Atari computers.  And, more importantly, he knows where to go
to find answers that he doesn't already have (CIS, of course).

Bob Caroles asks about the latest in data storage technology:

     "Hi there! This is a plea to anyone that is currently using a
     (fl)optical drive with an Atari ST. In a nutshell, just how
     good/reliable are they?

     I've a lot of information on a number of ST's in an office and plan to
     use such a device as a backup storage medium. Would this be suitable
     for such a task, or am I better off looking elsewhere?"

David Hagood tells Bob:

     "I have had a floptical for a while, and I can say that they are very
     reliable.  I use it for backup and for storage of seldom used files
     (it is much easier to pop a floptical containing, say, all my GIF's
     into the drive than to  get a tape, restore the tape, look at the pic,
     and delete it).

     To be honest, the cost of a floptical/ per megabyte, is greater than
     the cost of floppy disks (about $.90/megabyte, verses about
     $.30/megabyte for floppy disks or $.20/megabyte for tapes). However, a
     floptical is a lot more convenient for backups (no disk swaps for
     partitions less than 20M, more if you use ZIP) and more convenient to
     access files from than a tape.

     Lastly, if you use the "standard" format, any system can read the
     disks: PC, Mac, Ami, Unix."

Geoff Larsen asks for some...

     "Help!!! I live in Australia and I will have to deal with an American
     supplier, But I can't get any info. Please help.  

     1. How fast is it.
     2. Do you know if the thing will work as device 2 mixing Atari DMA and
        ICD controllers (I own a Mega STe)
     3. Is there a contact on CIS that I can purchase from."

Oscar Steele at Purple Mountain Computers jumps in and plugs his product
(as well he should!):

     "Whatever you do contact PMC (Purple Mountain Computers) FIRST.  PMC
     has drives for $389 (not $600 from the Toad, like the other message

     This includes the Floptical drive and 5 Floptical disks. There are
     also quite a few drives in stock that are less expensive (without the
     extra Floptical disks).  Call 206-399-8700 between 1 and 5 PM (Pacific
     Standard Time) and talk to me, I'll be more than happy to help you and
     answer any other questions for you.

     We also have the Links available for $85 (limit 1 per drive).  To
     answer your questions:

     Fast: it's a LOT faster than floppy drives, but not as fast as a hard
     drive. If you don't do direct to disk recording (sound/graphics), then
     it should be great for your setup.  TOS 1.4 and above is recommended.
     It'll work fine mixing controllers, just as long as you use the ICD
     software (you need the Pro version which is about $40, or just get a
     Link for $85 which includes software). Contact on CIS: right here ;-)"

>From the Atari Arts Forum

Remember when there were only two choices for graphics formats for the ST?
We had Neochrome and Degas.  Ah, things were so much simpler then.  Now
there are so many different formats that you could go crazy trying to keep
all of them straight.  Luckily, someone came up with the idea of
multi-format graphics viewers.  The idea caught on and now there are almost
as many all-in-one viewers as there are formats.  That's progress, I guess.
But which one to use?  Henri Tremblay posts:

     "One of my friends asks me which is the best multi-resolution viewer
     for the ST.  Gemview?  Photochrome?  Any suggestions?"

HAH!  Any suggestions??  Henri sure came to the right place.  Albert Dayes
tells him:

     "GEMVIEW seems quite good.  Its now up to version 2.20 which is in the
     library.  You might also look at picswitch version 1.0.1.  And I'm
     sure there is a host of other ones available as well."

Sysop Ron Luks, the Big Cahoona himself, gives his opinion:

     "Get GEMVIEW.  there's a new version in lib 14."

There you have it, folks.  There can be no argument.  Ron's advise is a lot
like that old commercial for E. F. Hutton (I think)...

Two people sit at a table while a wild party goes on around them.
Champagne corks pop, the sound of riotous laughter swirls around them, and
assorted undergarments (my own addition) fly everywhere.  One says to the

"My Sysop is Ron Luks.  And Ron Luks says..."

The room goes silent and still as an off-stage voice says:

                   "WHEN RON LUKS TALKS, PEOPLE LISTEN".

Well folks, I know that the column is short this week, but I'm now hearing
thunder-claps in the not-too-distant distance.  So I'll sign off now and be
safe.  C'mon back next week for lots of questions and answers, and a bit of
humor now and then.  All you have to do is listen to what they are saying

                             PEOPLE ARE TALKING



                           THE CT ATARIFEST '93!

                  JUNE 12 & 13, AT THE WINDSOR COURT HOTEL
                     WINDSOR, CT. (JUST ABOVE HARTFORD)

     Free Parking!
          Low Room Rates!
               More Vendors!
                    More Floor Space!

     Yep,  that ACT Atari Group is running another major NorthEast computer
event.   Last  year's successful  CT  Fest had  over 700  attendees,  which
merited  a larger location, so  we've moved a  mile away (exit  42 on I-91)
into  bigger and  better quarters.   We're just  as convenient  to reach as
ever,  and  only two  hours from  Boston  or New  York! The  new  hotel has
excellent  room rates ($35.00 per  room), free and  plentiful parking, easy
access from Interstate 91, I-95, I-90, I-84, I-80, an in  house Sports Bar,
a bigger  ballroom and is  located just 1  mile from  Bradley International
Airport (free shuttle service for hotel guests).

     We expect that an even greater number of vendors this year, surpassing
the  excellent turnout  of  the  past shows.    We  already have  tentative
commitments from  A&D Software,  Gribnif Software, Barefoot  Software, Toad
Computers,  Computer Studio,  Baggetaware,  Derric Electronics,  E.Hartford
Computer  Repair,   MegaType  Software,   Wizztronics   and  GFA   Software
Technology.  Last  year we had  FOURTEEN user groups,  this year we  should
have even more (We also expect an exciting 8 Bit contingent)!

     We'll  have  our annual  New England  Lynx Competition,  with multiple
Comlynxed competitions underway  at all  times.  Last  year's winners  took
home prizes ranging  from games  to accessories to  complete Lynx  Systems!
Bring your best player and join the fun.

     We'll  have the Portfolio  Corner, staffed  with industry  pundits and
filled with every  imaginable palmtop peripheral!  Last year we  had a  few
Portfolios disassembled at  the booth,  a real insight  into surface  mount

     For those  of you  with an  eye towards seminars,  we'll have  them in
abundance, last year's  question and  answer session with  Bob Brodie  drew
standing only crowds! In addition, we had John Eidsvoog's walk through  the
Codehead  graphic tools,  Jeff  Naideau of  Barefoot  Software showing  off
EdiTrack  Platinum, Dave Troy  of (Guess[ribbet]) Computers  and many, many

     And to top  things off, come  out and see  the Falcon  030 in all  its
glory.  By then we expect to see some  rad new programs out and some really
excitement!   All in all, we hope to have  the best Northeast show yet, and
we  look forward to your  participation.  Make your plans  now for the most
exciting Atari Weekend this spring!

     For  further information, call  Brian Gockley at  203-332-1721 or Doug
Finch at 203-637-1034.  We can also be found  on GEnie in Category 11 or on
Compuserve in  the Atari arenas.   E-mail can  be directed to  B.GOCKLEY or
D.FINCH7 on GEnie or to 75300,2514 or 76337,1067 on CIS.


                             IMPORTANT NOTICE!

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the calendar  month with no further  obligation.  If you  keep your account
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limited offer, use your modem to dial 1-800-365-4636.  Press  <RET> once or
twice.  When you get the Password: prompt, type IP26 and press <RET> again.
Then, just  answer the questions and within a day or two, you'll officially
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                 DELPHI- It's getting better all the time!


> Let It Be! STR FOCUS!                 Try this on for size!

                                 LET IT BE

>From the Jerry Pournelle RT on Genie

Compiled by Lloyd E. Pulley, Sr.

I found this on another network and thought you folks might enjoy it  -- 
especially coming from a non-programmer like me,  who knows just  barely 
enough BASIC to get caught in a never-ending FOR-NEXT loop. <G>

Sung to Beatles "Let it Be":

  When I find my code in tons of trouble, 
  Friends and colleagues come to me, 
  Speaking words of wisdom:
  "Write in C."
  As the deadline fast approaches, 
  And bugs are all that I can see, 
  Somewhere, someone whispers:
  "Write in C."
  Write in C, write in C, 
  Write in C, oh, write in C.
  LISP is dead and buried, 
  Write in C.
  I used to write a lot of FORTRAN, 
  For science it worked flawlessly.
  Try using it for graphics!
  Write in C.
  If you've just spent nearly 30 hours 
  Debugging some assembly, 
  Soon you will be glad to 
  Write in C.

  Write in C, write in C, 
  Write in C, yeah, write in C.
  Only wimps use BASIC.
  Write in C.

  Write in C, write in C 
  Write in C, oh, write in C.
  Pascal won't quite cut it.
  Write in C.

       Guitar Solo 

  Write in C, write in C, 
  Write in C, yeah, write in C.
  Don't even mention COBOL.
  Write in C.

  And when the screen is fuzzy, 
  And the editor is bugging me.
  I'm sick of ones and zeros, 
  Write in C.

  A thousand people swear that T.P.
  Seven is the one for me.
  I hate the word PROCEDURE, 
  Write in C.

  Write in C, write in C, 
  Write in C, yeah, write in C.
  PL1 is 80s, 
  Write in C.

  Write in C, write in C, 
  Write in C, yeah, write in C.
  The government loves ADA, 
  Write in C.


                    :HOW TO GET YOUR OWN GENIE ACCOUNT:

      Set your communications software to Half Duplex (or Local Echo)
                      Call: (with modem) 800-638-8369.
               Upon connection type HHH (RETURN after that).
                          Wait for the U#= prompt.

                  Type: XTX99587,CPUREPT then, hit RETURN.

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> A REAL "TWIST" STR Feature           ...TO AN OLD, OLD STORY


by Ian Lepore

 In the beginning there was the 16-bit compiler, and the 'int' datatype,
and the GEM programming idiom was to use 'int' for everything. Programmers,
in their ignorance, worshipped the false god of 'int', and were blissful.
There was much making of merry, small furry creatures were sacrificed and
consumed with abandon, and the feasts lasted far into the night (with the
help of coffee and Jolt Cola).

 The gods looked down on the programmers, and they were angered, for gods
have never been able to abide happiness amongst the mortals. (Also, the
loud partying was keeping them up all night.)  So the gods caused to be
created the 32-bit compiler for the Atari ST machines. The pestilence of
the 32-bit int settled quietly upon the land, but the gods were patient.
They knew a time of great trial and tribulation was about to descend upon
the programmers.

 Upon the earth, trouble was brewing, although those at the center of the
storm were hardly aware at first that anything was happening. There came
to be a variety of religious sects, each with its own way of worshipping.

 The sects known as HSC, Sozobon, MWC, and Laser C were egalitarian in
nature.  The believed that the holy words 'short' and 'int' had equal
power, and they did not examine the arguments of their worshippers

 The powerful sect known as Lattice came to discover that the holy words
did not contain equal power.  The high priests at HiSoft declared that
the holy word 'short' was The One True Way to address prayers to the GEM
gods.  The demigod Atari was pleased with this new method of worship, and
endorsed its use by distributing example source code using the new proper
method of worship.

 Another powerful sect, known as GCC, also discovered the unequal powers
of the 'short' and 'int' holy words.  One high priest in this sect
declared, "Worship the gods only through me, and you may continue to use
the 'int' holy word.  I will translate this for the GEM gods as needed. I
will be your intermediary, but only if you are faithful to my ways." This
pleased many programmers recently converted to the GCC sect, for they
could reuse their existing prayers without change.

 The programmers were a good-natured and easy-going bunch.  Even though
they had different methods of worshipping, they recognized that there was
power in the prayers offered by other sects, and they wished to share and
exchange them.  The GCC and Lattice sects were not as easy-going as the
older religions, however.  They examined closely the arguments made by
the programmers, and rejected those that used improper holy words.
Finally the pestilence sent by the gods in chapter 2 began to rear its
ugly head.

 It came to pass that the high priest of the HSC sect undertook a
reconciliation of these differences.  This priest had assembled a large
book of hymns in praise of the GEM gods, and wished for all programmers
to have access to it.  He examined the issues involved, and decided that
the Lattice method of worship was more correct.  The endorsement of the
Lattice method by the demigod Atari weighed heavily in his decision. The
fact that the GEM gods themselves (within their innermost sanctums) also
used the holy word 'short' -- well, this could not be dismissed lightly,
and also lent weight to the decision.  A week or so was spent converting
the massive hymnal to use the Lattice holy word 'short'. Another week
sufficed for the conversion of all the private prayers this priest had
created over the years.  (The Lattice compiler simplified this
conversion, by pointing out the places where the old holy word of 'int'
could no longer be used.  And the HSC compiler, was as ever, egalitarian,
allowing either word interchangeably in most situations.)

 The HSC high priest knew that his mission was not completed, however.
There remained the task of reconciliation with the powerful and
ever-growing GCC sect.  He sent a dispatch to the high priest of GEM
worship for the GCC sect, attempting to open a dialog by outlining some
of the issues involved, and urging that the GCC high priest discuss with
him the implications of a change in the method of worship.  GCC's high
priest promptly responded, implying that the HSC high priest was a
charlatan and blasphemer, and stating quite clearly that there would be
no discussion of philosophy.

 The GCC high priest made, however, what he surely considered to be a
magnanimous offer to the HSC high priest: "Send me your hymnal full of
blasphemy, and I will rewrite it in a way that is compatible with all
prior methods of worship.  This I consider to be a trivial task, though I
have never seen your hymnal, and really care not what it contains."  The
HSC high priest shook his sadly at this, knowing that the hymnal
contained many advanced forms of worship that the GCC priest had (by his
own admission) never encountered before.  He knew this wasn't the sort of
problem that could be solved with a typedef or two and a couple macros.

 The HSC priest was sorely troubled by this turn of events, and undertook
many hours of meditation in the desert.  He undertook strenuous exercise
and a fasting diet during this period.  (This had nothing to do with the
problem of how to worship the GEM gods, he just wanted to lose some
weight.  But it did serve to darken his attitude.)  Finally after much
meditation, a great truth was made known to the HSC priest:

     This is not a matter to be solved by gods, demigods, or
     priests, for they live in isolation from the day-to-day
     troubles of programmers.  The programmers must decide for
     themselves, and make their wishes known to those who craft
     their hymnals and translate their prayers.

 And so the HSC high priest decided to bring this matter into the temple
to be discussed by the entire flock.  He did not truly expect a complete
solution to come of this action, for he had tried such methods before,
and had gotten responses from the flock ranging from abject indifference
to contentious bickering.  Still, this was a matter too important to be
decided by the few, so he began to prepare sermons to be preached to the
flock, that they might come to know the troubles suffered by those who
create the hymnals and translate the prayers offered up by the flock. And
also that he could learn of the concerns of the flock, for this priest
not only preached to his flock, but also listened to them.

 And this history is the first of those sermons.  Amen.


> BLUE RIDGE ATARIFEST'93 STR SHOW NEWS    "The Summertime Atari Event!"

                         1993 Blue Ridge ATARIFEST

The  Blue Ridge  Atari  Computer Enthusiasts  (BRACE)  and Computer  STudio
invite you  to participate  in the  Fourth Annual Blue  Ridge AtariFest  in
beautiful Asheville, North Carolina.  Show dates and times are:

                     Saturday July 24, 1993  10am - 6pm
                     Sunday   July 25, 1993  Noon - 5pm

Just as in previous  years, we have arranged for FREE Booth space for Atari
developers!!  (We're only requesting the donation of a door prize).

We can promise  both developers  and show-goers an  energetic and  exciting
show with as enthusiastic a crowd of Atarians as you'll find anywhere, plus
the support of Computer STudio in the mall.

We're once again  taking over the  Courtyard Shop (mall)  area at  Westgate
Shopping Center for the show (location of Computer STudio), plus the use of
vacant  store spaces  for seminar  sessions.   Seminar sessions will  be 45
minutes in length, and developers are welcome to conduct a seminar on their
product  line or  approved  topic of  their  choice (seminar  sessions  are
limited, so first come, first served).

This year's show  dates also  coincide with Asheville's  annual Bele  Chere
street festival, when downtown Asheville is closed to vehicular traffic and
becomes  what  must be  one of  the largest  street  fairs in  the country.
Westgate  Shopping  Center  is one  of  the  primary Park-and-Ride  shuttle
centers for transporting people to and from downtown, and we've arranged to
have the shuttle service pick up at the front entrance of the mall and drop
off at the rear entrance, so everyone taking the service from Westgate WILL
walk through the  AtariFest exhibition area sometime during the  day.  This
will be a  great opportunity to showcase  Atari and Atari related  software
and  peripherals, and  introduce them  to people  who aren't  already Atari
owners.  Bringing  in NEW blood is the key to  the growth of this platform,
and  this will  be our  opportunity to  begin that  process with  a captive

Additional  discussions of  the  show, as  well  as confirmations  of  your
participation, are welcome in GEnieMail and in the Blue Ridge
AtariFest topic 13 in Category 11 here on GEnie.

Hoping to hear from  you soon.  Happy  Atari Computing.  It's  happening in
A       s       h       e       v       i       l       l       e       !

Where: Westgate Shopping Center - Asheville, N.C.

Take any  major highway  into Asheville (US  19-23, US 26  or I-40)  to the
I-240  loop,  then  take the  "Westgate/Hilton  Inn  Drive  exit" into  the
Westgate Shopping Center parking lot.

                            When: 24-25, July 1993
                          Time: 10:am to 6:pm SAT
                                12 Noon 'til 5pm SUN

Points of contact:

                  Come for a day or come for the weekend,
                      but do come and enjoy yourself.

Great Smokies Hilton Resort  Hilton Inn Drive        (704)254-3211
                 Toll-free reservation phone number 1-800-733-3211

Radisson                    One Thomas Wolf Plaza    (704)252-8211
                 Rate: $62.00 per room (1-4 people)

          ====== Additional Hotel / Motel Information ===========

Days Inn                       I-26 and Airport Road     (704)684-2281
                               I-40 Exit 55              (704)298-5140

Econo Lodge                    US 70 East, I-40 Exit 55  (704)298-5519

Holiday Inn                    275 Smoky Park Hwy        (704)667-4501
                     Toll-free reservation phone number  1-800-HOLIDAY

Red Roof Inn                   I-40 and US 19-23 Exit 44 (704)667-9803
                    Toll-free reservation phone number  1-800-843-7663

Budget Motel                    I-40 Exit 44 (Enka-Chandler)
                                  West Asheville Exit    (704)665-2100 Best
Western Asheville Central  22 Woodfin St                 (704)253-1851

       ========= Local Bed & Breakfast lodging Information =========

Aberdeen Inn                64 Linden Ave                (704)254-9336
Albemarle Inn               86 Edgemont Road             (704)255-0027
Applewood Manor             62 Cumberland Circle         (704)254-2244
The Bridle Path Inn        Lockout Road                  (704)252-0035
Cairn Brae B & B           217 Patton Mountain Rd        (704)252-9219
Carolina B & B             177 Cumberland Ave            (704)254-3608
Cedar Crest Victorian Inn  674 Biltmore Ave              (704)252-1289
Corner Oak Manor            53 St. Dunstan               (704)253-3525
Cornerstone Inn            230 Pearson Dr                (704)253-5644
Flint Street Inn           100 & 116 Flint Street        (704)253-6723
The Lion and The Rose      276 Montford Ave              (704)255-7673
The Ray House B & B         83 Hillside St               (704)252-0106
Reed House                 119 Dodge St                  (704)274-1604
The Wright Inn             235 Pearson Drive             (704)251-0789]

A more complete listing of Bed & Breakfasts can be obtained through the
Asheville Area Chamber of Commerce.

Reservations should be made immediately, as July is the height of our
tourist season.

                 ===========  CAMP GROUNDS ================

           (reservations are a must during this time of season):

Mount Pisgah:
     About 20  miles southwest  of Asheville on  the Blue Ridge  Parkway at
mile post 408.6 (National Park Service). 690 acres. Elevation 5000'. One of
the nicest campgrounds  in Western  North Carolina.  67 tent  sites, 70  RV
sites. For reservations: P.O.Box 749,  Watnesville, N.C. 28786; phone (704)
235-9109. No showers.  Groceries and  restaurant. Nature program.   14  day
stay limit.

Lake Powhatan:
     4  miles south of  Asheville on State  road 191, 3.5  miles west on FR
806.  30  acres.  98  tent/rv  sites.  Reservation  available  thru  Mistix
1-800-283-CAMP. Disposal station. No showers. Swimming; lifeguard; fishing;
nature trails; bicycles. 14-day stay limit.

     While in the  area, you might want  to consider a little  sightseeing,
and include  a visit to the  Biltmore House here in  Asheville (the largest
single family residence ever built in the U.S.--its a "castle"). A visit to
the Biltmore can  be a  full-day's activity as  you will  want to view  the
house, visit the winery, and walk some of the grounds and gardens.


          The House 9 am to 6pm         The Gardens 9am to 7pm
                         Conservatory 9am to 5:30pm 
          The Winery Monday-Saturday   11am to 7pm Sunday 1pm to 7pm

     Other areas of interest include; the Thomas Wolf home (adjacent to the
Raddison), the Blue Ridge Parkway and Folk Art Center. A drive  up the Blue
ridge Parkway  to enjoy the higher  elevations and incredible  views of our
mountains.  Perhaps  a hike  up  to  Mount Pisgah  and  look  back down  to
Asheville(you can see Mt. Pisgah from most anywhere in Asheville).  A short
drive from  Mt. Pisgah  will take  you to  Sliding Rock  (for those of  you
travelling with kids who are  still kids at heart), the Cradle  of Forestry
(first  forest school in the country), waterfalls, trout hatchery, etc. For
the adventurous,  white water  rafting  on  the Natahala River  near Bryson
City (approx one and a half hours from here).

     There's  obviously loads  more  to see  and  do around  Asheville  (in
addition to the Blue Ridge AtariFest and a visit to Computer STudio :-). If
any of  y'all would  like maps and  additional tourist info  of the  area I
might suggest contacting the Chamber of Commerce:

                     Asheville Area Chamber of Commerce
                             151 Haywood Street
                               P.O. Box 1010
                            Asheville, NC 28802
                      704-258-6111 FAX: (704)251-0926


> STReport CONFIDENTIAL    "Rumors Tidbits Predictions Observations Tips"

- Hanover, Germany                              PRELIMINARY CEBIT REPORT

From:    Wilfred Kilwinger
To:      All
Msg #548, Mar-30-93 00:17:18
Subject: Cebit'93 show in Germany

                     Atari Booth at CEBIT'93

|                      |53|55|57|59|                    /51/52/
|   MEETING            |------------                   /--/--/
|                      |54|56|58|60|                  /49/50/
|   ROOMS              \                             /--/--/
|               DEALER  \                           /47/48/
\  KITCHEN              |  |33|35|37|39|41|43|     /--/--/
 \              CENTER  |  -------------------    /45/46/
  ---------\           /   |34|36|38|40|42|44|   /--/--/    /--/--/
   | 9|10|  \         /                                    /31/32/
   -------   --------                                     /--/--/
   | 7| 8|    _______                                    /29/30/
   -------    |13|14|                                   /--/--/
              -------                   \--\--\        /27/28/
              |11|12|        \--\--\     \22\21\      /--/--/
  ____                        \16\15\     \--\--\
 /    \                        \--\--\     \24\23\
| Lynx |   ______               \18\17\     \--\--\
 \    /   /5 /6 /                \--\--\     \26\25\ /    /\
         /--/--/                  \20\19\     \--\--/    /  \
        /3 /4 /                    \--\--\      \  /    /__  \
       /--/--/          /\                       \/    /   |  |
      /1 /2 /          /  \                      /    /    |  |
                      / /\ \                      \  /     /  /
                     / /  \ \                VIDEO \/     /  /
                    / /    \ \                WALL     __/  / INFO
                   / /      \ \                       \    /  DESK


     Here  is the list with developers, I'm  not sure this is 100% accurate
since they made some last minutes changes.

 1 Infogrammes, Alone in the Dark
 2 Praefcke, PCB-layout, GAL-editor, Chemical Structure/formule editor
 3 Eurosoft, Photo Studio (Falcon030), Home Video kit
 4 Victor GmbH, Integrated Software, Databases
 5 Artiplus, TopCard's (business card printing)
 6 Purix Software, Script 3
 7 Digital Data Deicke, Falcon housing, external keyboard (199 DM)
 8 DVPI GmbH, Music Software, Portfolio MIDI interface
 9 Atari
10 GE-Soft, Falcon030 32-bit SIMM memory expansion with 33Mhz 68030
11 Richter, GFA Basic, OCR, Render/Animation software
12 Steinberg, Cubase Audio (MIDI and Harddisk Recording)
13 Richter, Lexicor render/animation software
14 Atari, Falcon030 with MIDI applications
15 Logitex, DATAlight data compression, 1ST Card database, 1ST Lock
16 Inshape, raytracing, animation, 3-D modelling
17 OverScan, Video titling, Genlocking
18 Compo, Falcon Speed emulator based on 80286
19 OverScan, Grafics, Video titling, animation, ScreenBlaster
20 Compo, Musicom harddisk recording (with digital interface)
21 Yeti (and Brainstorm), Yeti software, Falcon DSP JPEG, DSP MPEG
22 HiSoft TruePaint, Lattice C
23 Silmaris, Ishar Falcon030 game
24 Oregon Research, Diamond Edge harddisk optimiser on Falcon030
25 Team Computer, Video Production
26 Atari, Falcon030 with misc. application
27 Jobis, Falcon Tower, office software
28 Jobis
29 PAM software, ethernet software, TCP/IP, NFS, Novell, FalconNet
30 Trade-It, Chacall image processing
31 HTA
32 Trade-It, DigiTape 8-channel harddisk recording
33 Biodata, Bionet network for Atari, PC, UNIX and Apple
34 Atari, Falcon030 software utilities
35 ICP Verlag, TOS Magazine, FastCopy Pro
36 Eickman Computing, Falcon030 Tower
37 VHF computer, Falcon030 with CAD software, converter for vector formats
38 Atari
39 VHF computer, CAD software
40 H3 systems, Falcon030 with DA's Vector animation software
41 Atari, Calamus S
42 Color Concept, Kodak Photo CD software on Falcon030 and TT
43 DMC GmbH, Calamus SL
44 Color Concept
45 TKR, Crazy Dots graphics card, FAX software
46 TMS GmbH, Cranach
47 TKR
48 Atari, Falcon030 demo software
49 Rhothron, Falcon030 in 19" rack, process control/measurement
50 Application Systems Heidelberg, Signum!3, Papillon graphics softw.
51 Rhotron
52 App. Systems, Pure C, Pure Pascal, Phoenix database
53 Atari, Falcon030
54 Atari, Falcon030
55 SDS. Information Management
56 Digital Optical Analog, Blackmail Falcon030 Voice Mail system
57 Matrix, Falcon030 with MatDigiR video digitizer
58 R.O.M. Software, Papyrus word processor, DTP Module, Office Module
59 Matrix, TT/Mega STE (true color) video cards
60 STAGE Microsystems, office software

     I counted at least  38 Falcon030's on the  booth. The presentation  on
the Video Wall  was very good. A  part of it was  live, a part of it  was a
product video showing  several good Falcon030  software titles.   Steinberg
used the wall also for presentation of Cubase Audio.

     Lot's of very good Falcon030 applications  were on the booth but  also
new or updates software for existing ST's and TT's.

     I  leave it to others to  publish about the software  they saw but I'm
available for answering questions.

                                        Wilfred Kilwinger
                                        Support Manager
                                        Atari Benelux (The Netherlands)

--- LED 1.00
 * Origin: *--Support afdeling Atari (Benelux) B.V.--* (2:500/130.11304)

- Hanover, Germany               CeBIT REPORTS ATTENDANCE IN EXCESS 660,000

     The European  business computer,  home computer, office  equipment and
communications  technology  fair  "CeBIT"  finished  up  a  week-long  show
Wednesday  in  Hanover, Germany  reporting  over 660,000  visitors.   CeBIT
administrators said visitor turnout  easily exceeded last year.   More than
5,600 exhibitors from 45 countries, worldwide  took part in the show, which
featured  the East European nations  as the official  "partnerland".  Among
the visitors were 104,000 from foreign countries, up considerably from last
year.  New to be counted were over 14,000 from eastern Europe.


> NVN WANTS YOU! STR InfoFile       Another Network Supports Atari!

                      National Videotext Network (NVN)

     National  Videotext Network (NVN) has recently added an Atari ST Forum
to  it's growing lists of available services.   The Atari ST Forum is ready
and waiting for you!
     Order an  extended NVN  Membership of 6  or 12 months,  pay for  it in
advance  and  receive a  bonus in  connect  time at  no  additional charge.
Choose from two subscription plans: 
6-Month Membership
     Pay just $30 for a 6-month  Membership and receive a usage credit that
entitles you to $15 of connect-time in the Premium services of your choice.
Your total savings using this plan would be over $20!*
12 Month Membership
     Pay  $50 for  a full  year's Membership  and get  even more  free time
on-line.   We'll   give  you a  $25 usage  credit to  use in  your favorite
Premium services or try out new ones. You could save as much as $45.*
     For more  information about either of  these plans, give us  a call at

                               NVN HIGHLIGHTS
For the newcomers....

 - Introducing a great new tool to make your JOBSEARCH more effective.
 - Amateur Radio comes to NVN!  Old-timers and newcomers, visit the Ham     
 - The secret of *fast* sales prospecting...
 - Attachment Capabilities are now in Email!!!
 - Subaccounts are now blocked from Premium Plus services...
 - Go Treasure Hunting with the folks in the Numismatic Collectors Forum.
 - Why wait an extra day to see U.S. Gov't product/service procurements?.
 - The NVN On-line Billing Service is Back - with Enhancements!
 - Shake the Last of the Winter Blues the EAASY Way!
 - What are eight *advantages* of searching online for information?...
 - NVN's Movie Forum presents....You Pick The Oscars contest...
 - Tell the best FISH STORY and WIN time on NVN!
 - Introducing the Mental Health Forum with a registered Psychiatrist on    
                          -=* 9600 BAUD USERS *=-
                $6/hour non-prime time - $9/hour prime time
                     You can join NVN one of two ways.
              By voice phone 1-800-336-9096 (Client Services)
                      via modem phone 1-800-336-9092.


> PICTURE FORMATS STR InfoFile           Clearing up the "Picture"

                           ST Picture Formats
                               Edited by:

                              David Baggett


                   (Please report errors or additions.)

            Copyright (C) 1988 -- 1993  by David M. Baggett

    Non-profit redistribution of this document is permitted, provided
    the document is not modified in any way.

    Reproduction of this document in whole or in part for  commercial
    purposes is expressly forbidden without the prior written consent
    of David M. Baggett.

    The  information  presented here is not guaranteed to be correct.
    The editor and contributors will in no event be liable for direct,
    indirect, incidental, or consequential damages resulting from the 
    use of the information in this document.

    This document is the product of many hours of volunteer work by a
    large number of people. Please respect this -- do not violate the
    distribution policy.

             Steve Belczyk  Phil Blanchfield  Marcel Boom
    Jason Blochowiak  John Brochu**  David Brooks  Daniel Deimert
    Neil Forsyth  Stefan Hoehn  Gerfried Klein  G. "Maddog" Knauss
        Ken MacLeod  Shamus McBride  Jim McCabe  Lars Michael
        Darek Mihocka  David Mumper  George Nassas  Jim Omura
                 George Seto  Joe Smith  Greg Wageman
                     Roland Waldi*  Gerry Wheeler


        NEOchrome                               *.NEO
        NEOchrome Animation                     *.ANI
        DEGAS                                   *.PI?   ? = 1, 2, 3
        DEGAS Elite                             *.PI?   ? = 1, 2, 3
        DEGAS Elite (Compressed)                *.PC?   ? = 1, 2, 3
        Tiny                                    *.TN?   ? = 1, 2, 3, Y
        Spectrum 512                            *.SPU
        Spectrum 512 (Compressed)               *.SPC
        Spectrum 512 (Smooshed)                 *.SPS
        Art Director                            *.ART
        C.O.L.R. Object Editor Mural            *.MUR
        Doodle                                  *.DOO
        Cyber Paint Sequence                    *.SEQ
        Animatic Film                           *.FLM
        Animaster Sprite Bank                   *.ASB
        STOS                                    *.MBK
        GEM Bit Image                           *.IMG
        GEM Metafile (vector graphics)          *.GEM
        STAD                                    *.PAC
        Imagic Film/Picture                     *.IC?   ? = 1, 2, 3
        IFF                                     *.IFF
        RGB Intermediate Format                 *.RGB
        ComputerEyes Raw Data Format            *.CE?   ? = 1, 2
        MacPaint                                *.MAC
        PackBits Compression Algorithm

                        Introductory Information
word    = 2 bytes
long    = 4 bytes
palette = Hardware color palette, stored as 16 words.  First word is
          color register zero (background), last word is color register
          15.  Each word has the form:

          Bit:  (MSB) 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00 (LSB)
                      -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --
                       0  0  0  0  0 R2 R1 R0  0 G2 G1 G0  0 B2 B1 B0

          R2 = MSB of red intensity
          R0 = LSB of red intensity

          G2 = MSB of green intensity
          G0 = LSB of green intensity

          B2 = MSB of blue intensity
          B0 = LSB of blue intensity

          Intensity ranges from 0 (color not present) to 7 (highest

          Example: { red = 7, green = 3, blue = 5 } -> 0735 (hex)

          Caveat:  It is wise to mask off the upper four bits of each
                   palette entry, since a few programs store special
                   information there (most notably Art Studio).

                             The Formats

<NEOchrome>     *.NEO
1 word          flag byte [always 0]
1 word          resolution [0 = low res, 1 = medium res, 2 = high res]
16 words        palette
12 bytes        filename [usually "        .   "]
1 word          color animation limits.  High bit (bit 15) set if color
                animation data is valid.  Low byte contains color animation
                limits (4 most significant bits are left/lower limit,
                4 least significant bits are right/upper limit).
1 word          color animation speed and direction.  High bit (bit 15) set
                if animation is on.  Low order byte is # vblanks per step.
                If negative, scroll is left (decreasing).  Number of
                between cycles is |x| - 1
1 word          # of color steps (as defined in previous word) to display
                picture before going to the next.  (For use in slide shows)
1 word          image X offset [unused, always 0]
1 word          image Y offset [unused, always 0]
1 word          image width [unused, always 320]
1 word          image height [unused, always 200]
33 words        reserved for future expansion
16000 words     picture data (screen memory)
32128 bytes     total

<NEOchrome Animation>        *.ANI

NOTE:      To get this feature on versions 0.9 and later select the Grabber
        icon and click both mouse buttons in the eye of the second R in the
        word GRABBER.

           Interestingly enough, some versions of NEO only require you
        to press the right button, not both.  Hmmm...

1 long          magic number BABEEBEA (hex) (seems to be ignored)
1 word          width of image in bytes (always divisible by 8)
1 word          height of image in scan lines
1 word          size of image in bytes + 10 (!)
1 word          x coordinate of image (must be divisible by 16) - 1
1 word          y coordinate of image - 1
1 word          number of frames
1 word          animation speed (# vblanks to delay between frames)
1 long          reserved; should be zero
22 bytes        total for header

? words         image data (words of screen memory) for each frame, in 

<DEGAS>         *.PI1 (low resolution)
                *.PI2 (medium resolution)
                *.PI3 (high resolution)

1 word          resolution (0 = low res, 1 = medium res, 2 = high res)
                Other bits may be used in the future; use a simple bit
                test rather than checking for specific word values.
16 words        palette
16000 words     picture data (screen memory)
32034 bytes     total

<DEGAS Elite>   *.PI1 (low resolution)
                *.PI2 (medium resolution)
                *.PI3 (high resolution)

1 word          resolution (0 = low res, 1 = medium res, 2 = high res)
                Other bits may be used in the future; use a simple bit
                test rather than checking for specific word values.
16 words        palette
16000 words     picture data (screen memory)
4 words         left color animation limit table (starting color numbers)
4 words         right color animation limit table  (ending color numbers)
4 words         animation channel direction flag (0 = left, 1 = off, 2 =
4 words         128 - animation channel delay in 1/60's of a second. [0 -
                (I.e., subtract word from 128 to get 1/60th's of a second.)
32066 bytes     total

<DEGAS Elite (Compressed)>      *.PC1 (low resolution)
                                *.PC2 (medium resolution)
                                *.PC3 (high resolution)
1 word          resolution (same as Degas, but high order bit is set;
                i.e., hex 8000 = low res, hex 8001 = medium res,
                hex 8002 = high res).  Other bits may be used in the
                future; use a simple bit test rather than checking
                for specific word values.
16 words        palette
< 32000 bytes   control/data bytes
4 words         left color animation limit table (starting color numbers)
4 words         right color animation limit table (ending color numbers)
4 words         animation channel direction flag [0 = left, 1 = off, 2 =
4 words         128 - animation channel delay in 1/60's of a second. [0 -
                (I.e., subtract word from 128 to get 1/60th's of a second.)
< 32066 bytes   total
Compression Scheme:
   PackBits compression is used (see below).  Each  scan line is compressed
separately; i.e.,  all data for a  given scan line appears  before any data
for the next scan line.   The scan lines  are specified from top to  bottom
(i.e., 0 is first).  For each scan line, all the data for a given bit plane
appears before  any data for  the next higher  order bit plane.   Note that
this is identical to the IFF 'BODY' image data.

   To clarify:  The first data in the file will be the data for  the lowest
order bit plane of scan line zero, followed by the data for the next higher
order  bit plane of  scan line zero,  etc., until all  bit planes have been
specified for scan  line zero.  The next data in  the file will be the data
for the lowest order bit plane of  scan line one, followed by the data  for
the next  higher order  bit plane  of scan line  one, etc.,  until all  bit
planes have been specified for all scan lines.
   DEGAS Elite's picture loading routine places some restrictions on
compressed DEGAS files:
        o Elite uses a 40-byte buffer to store data being decompressed.
        o Whenever a control command is encountered, bytes are stuffed
          in this buffer.
        o The buffer is only emptied when there are EXACTLY 40
          characters in it.
The important conclusion here is that
        No control command may cause the buffer to have more than 40
        bytes in it.  In other words, all control commands must end on
        or before the 40-byte boundary.
Any picture violating the last condition will cause Elite to get a bus
error when the picture is loaded.

<Tiny>  *.TNY (any resolution)
        *.TN1 (low resolution)
        *.TN2 (medium resolution)
        *.TN3 (high resolution)

   Several  people have reported sightings of mutated Tiny pictures that do
not follow the  standard format, so let's  be careful out  there.  What  is
described here  is the  format  that David  Mumper's original  TNYSTUFF.PRG

1 byte          resolution (same as NEO, but +3 indicates rotation
                information also follows)

If resolution > 2 {
1 byte          left and right color animation limits.  High 4 bits
                hold left (start) limit; low 4 bits hold right (end) limit
1 byte          direction and speed of color animation (negative value
                indicates left, positive indicates right, absolute value
                is delay in 1/60's of a second.
1 word          color rotation duration (number of iterations)

16 words        palette
1 word          number of control bytes
1 word          number of data words
3-10667 bytes   control bytes
1-16000 words   data words
42-32044 bytes  total

Control byte meanings:

        For a given control byte, x:

        x < 0   Absolute value specifies the number of unique words to
                take from the data section (from 1 to 127)
        x = 0   1 word is taken from the control section which specifies
                the number of times to repeat the next data word (from
                128 to 32767)
        x = 1   1 word is taken from the control section which specifies
                the number of unique words to be taken from the data
                section (from 128 - 32767)
        x > 1   Specifies the number of times to repeat the next word
                taken from the data section (from 2 to 127)

Format of expanded data:

   The expanded  data is not simply screen memory bitmap data; instead, the
data  is divided  into four  sets of  vertical columns.   (This  results in
better compression.)   A column  consists of  one specific word  taken from
each  scan line, going from top to  bottom.  For example, column 1 consists
of word 1 on scanline 1 followed by word 1 on scanline 2, etc., followed by
word 1 on scanline 200.

   The columns appear in the following order:

   1st set contains columns 1, 5,  9, 13, ..., 69, 73, 77 in order
   2nd set contains columns 2, 6, 10, 14, ..., 70, 74, 78 in order
   3rd set contains columns 3, 7, 11, 15, ..., 71, 75, 79 in order
   4th set contains columns 4, 8, 12, 16, ..., 72, 76, 80 in order

Note that Tiny  partitions the  screen this way  regardless of  resolution;
i.e.,  these aren't bitplanes.  For example, medium resolution only has two
bitplanes,  but Tiny  still divides  medium resolution  pictures into  four

<Spectrum 512>  *.SPU

80 words        first scan line of picture (unused) -- should be zeroes
15920 words     picture data (screen memory) for scan lines 1 through 199
9552 words      3 palettes for each scan line (the top scan line is
                not included because Spectrum 512 can't display it)
51104 bytes     total

Note that the Spectrum 512 mode's three palette changes per scan line allow
more colors on the  screen than normally possible, but a  tremendous amount
of CPU time is required to maintain the image.

The Spectrum format specifies a palette of 48 colors for each scan line. To
decode a Spectrum picture, one must be know which of these 48 colors are in
effect for a given horizontal pixel position.

Given an x-coordinate (from 0 to 319) and a color index (from 0 to 15), the
following C function will return the proper index into the Spectrum palette
(from 0 to 47):

 *  Given an x-coordinate and a color index, returns the corresponding
 *  Spectrum palette index.
 *  by Steve Belczyk; placed in the public domain December, 1990.
FindIndex(x, c)
        int x, c;
        int x1;

        x1 = 10 * c;

        if (1 & c)              /* If c is odd */
                x1 = x1 - 5;
        else                    /* If c is even */
                x1 = x1 + 1;

        if (x >= x1 && x < x1 + 160) 
                c = c + 16;
        else if (x >= x1 + 160) 
                c = c + 32;

        return c;

<Spectrum 512 (Compressed)>        *.SPC
1 word          flag word [$5350 or "SP"]
1 word          reserved for future use [always 0]
1 long          length of data bit map
1 long          length of color bit map
<= 32092 bytes  compressed data bit map
<= 17910 bytes  compressed color bit map
<= 50014 bytes  total
Data compression:
   Compression  is via a modified run length encoding (RLE) scheme, similar
to  DEGAS compressed and  Tiny.  The  data map is  stored as a  sequence of
records.   Each record consists  of a header byte  followed by one  or more
data bytes.  The meaning of the header byte is as follows:
        For a given header byte, x:
           0 <= x <= 127   Use the next x + 1 bytes literally (no
        -128 <= x <=  -1   Use the next byte -x + 2 times
The data appears in the following order:
        1. Picture data, bit plane 0, scan lines 1 - 199
        2. Picture data, bit plane 1, scan lines 1 - 199
        3. Picture data, bit plane 2, scan lines 1 - 199
        4. Picture data, bit plane 3, scan lines 1 - 199
Decompression of data ends when 31840 data bytes have been used.
Color map compression:
   Each 16-word palette is compressed separately.  There are three palettes
for each scan  line (597 total).  The color map  is stored as a sequence of
records.  Each record starts with a 1-word bit vector which specifies which
of the 16 palette entries are included in the data following the bit vector
(1 = included,  0 = not included).  If a  palette entry is not included, it
is assumed to be zero (black).  The least significant bit of the bit vector
refers to  palette entry  zero, while  the most significant  bit refers  to
palette entry 15.   Bit 15 must  be zero, since  Spectrum 512 does not  use
palette  entry 15.  Bit  0 should also  be zero, since  Spectrum 512 always
makes the background color black.

   The words specifying the values for the palette entries indicated in the
bit vector follow the bit vector itself, in order (0 - 15).

NOTE:   Regarding Spectrum pictures, Shamus McBride reports the following:

        "... [The Picture Formats List] says bit 15 of the color map vector
        must be zero. I've encountered quite a few files where [bit 15] is 
        set (with no associated palette entry)..."

<Spectrum 512 (Smooshed)>          *.SPS

   This format compresses  Spectrum 512 pictures better than  the standard,
method.  There are at least two programs that support this format, SPSLIDEX
and   ANISPEC,  although  the  two   seem  to  differ   slightly  in  their
interpretation of the format.

   One  point of interest: Shamus McBride deciphered this format without an
1 word          5350 (hex) ("SP")
1 word          0 (reserved for future use)
1 long          length of data bit map
1 long          length of color bit map
<= ? bytes      compressed data bit map
<= ? bytes      compressed color bit map
< ?  bytes      total

Data compression:

   Compression  is via a modified run length encoding (RLE) scheme, similar
to that used in Spectrum Compressed (*.SPC) pictures.

The data map is stored as a sequence of records.  Each record consists of a
header byte followed  by one or more data bytes.  The meaning of the header
byte is as follows:

        For a given header byte, x (unsigned):

          0 <= x <= 127    Use the next byte x + 3 times
        128 <= x <= 255    Use the next x - 128 + 1 bytes literally
                           (no repetition)

There are two kinds of *.SPS files.

The data may appear in the same order as *.SPC files (SPSLIDEX format?):

        1. Picture data, bit plane 0, scan lines 1 - 199
        2. Picture data, bit plane 1, scan lines 1 - 199
        3. Picture data, bit plane 2, scan lines 1 - 199
        4. Picture data, bit plane 3, scan lines 1 - 199

The second variant (ANISPEC format?) encodes the data as byte wide vertical

        Picture data, bit plane 0, scan line   1, columns   0 -   7.
        Picture data, bit plane 0, scan line   2, columns   0 -   7.
        Picture data, bit plane 0, scan line   3, columns   0 -   7.
        . . .
        Picture data, bit plane 0, scan line 199, columns   0 -   7.
        Picture data, bit plane 0, scan line   1, columns   8 -  15.
        Picture data, bit plane 0, scan line   2, columns   8 -  15.
        . . .
        Picture data, bit plane 0, scan line 199, columns 312 - 319.
        Picture data, bit plane 1, scan line   1, columns   0 -   7.
        . . .
        Picture data, bit plane 3, scan line 198, columns 312 - 319
        Picture data, bit plane 3, scan line 199, columns 312 - 319.

A for loop to process that data would look like

        for (plane = 0; plane < 4; plane++)
            for (x = 0; x < 320; x += 8)
                for (y = 1; y < 200; y++)
                    for (x1 = 0; x1 < 8; x1++)
                        image[y, x + x1] = ...

Color map compression:

   Color map compression is similar to *.SPC color map compression, but the
map is compressed  as a string of  bits, rather than words.   There are 597
records (one  for each palette). Each record is composed of a 14-bit header
followed by a number of 9-bit palette entries.  The 14-bit header specifies
which palette entries follow (1  = included, 0 =  not included).  The  most
significant bit  of the header refers  to palette entry 1,  while the least
significant bit refers to palette 14.   Palette entries 0 and 15 are forced
to black (zero).  Each palette entry is encoded as "rrrgggbbb".

The format of the palette is described above in the section on uncompressed
Spectrum pictures (*.SPU).

<Art Director>  *.ART (low resolution only)

16000 words     picture data (screen memory)
16 words        palette
15 * 16 words   15 more palettes for animation
32512 bytes     total

<C.O.L.R. Object Editor Mural>        *.MUR (low resolution only)

16000 words     picture data (screen memory)
                (palettes are stored in separate files)
32000 bytes     total

<Doodle>        *.DOO (high resolution only)

16000 words     picture data (screen memory)
32000 bytes     total

<Cyber Paint Sequence>  *.SEQ (low resolution only)

  This  format,  while  fairly  complex, yields  excellent  compression  of
animated images while offering reasonably fast decompression times.
1 word          magic number [$FEDB or $FEDC]
1 word          version number
1 long          number of frames
1 word          speed (high byte is vblanks per frame)
118 bytes       reserved
128 bytes       total for .SEQ header

for each frame {
1 long          offset to data for this frame, in bytes [basically useless]

for each frame {
1 word          type (ignored?)
1 word          resolution [always 0]
16 words        palette
12 bytes        filename [usually "        .   "]
1 word          color animation limits [not used]
1 word          color animation speed and direction [not used]
1 word          number of color steps [not used]
1 word          x offset for this frame [0 - 319]
1 word          y offset for this frame [0 - 199]
1 word          width of this frame, in pixels (may be 0, see below)
1 word          height of this frame, in pixels (may be 0, see below)
1 byte          operation [0 = copy, 1 = exclusive or]
1 byte          storage method [0 = uncompressed, 1 = compressed]
1 long          length of data in bytes (if the data is compressed, this
                will be the size of the compressed data BEFORE
60 bytes        reserved                
128 bytes       total for frame header

? bytes         data}

   Frames  are "delta-compressed," meaning  that only the  changes from one
frame to the next are stored.  On the ST, .SEQ files are always full-screen
low resolution animations, so the sequence resulting from expanding all the
data will be n 320 by 200 pixel low resolution screens, where n is given in
the .SEQ header.
   Since  only the changes from frame to frame are stored, image data for a
frame  will rarely be 320x200 (except for  the very first frame, which will
always  be  a  full screen).    Instead  what  is  stored is  the  smallest
rectangular  region on  the screen that  contains all the  changes from the
previous  frame to the  current frame.   The x offset  and y offset  in the
frame header  determine where  the upper  left corner  of the  "change box"
lies, and the width and height specify the box's size.

   Additionally, each "change box" is stored in one of five ways.  For each
of these,  the screen is  assumed to  have the full-screen  image from  the
lstframe on it.

   o uncompressed copy:  The data for this frame is uncompressed image
     data, and is simply copied onto the screen at position (x, y)
     specified in the frame header.

   o uncompressed eor:  The data for this frame is exclusive or'ed with the
     screen at position (x, y).

   o compressed copy:  The data for this frame must be decompressed (see 
     below), and then copied onto the screen at position (x, y) specified
     in the frame header.
   o compressed eor:  The data for this frame must be decompressed (see 
     below), and then exclusive or'ed with the screen RAM at position (x,
   o null frame:  The width and/or height of this frame is 0, so this
     frame is the same as the previous frame.
   Of the 5 methods above, the one that results in the smallest amount
   of data being stored for a particular is used for that frame.
Compression Scheme:

   Compression is similar to that employed by Tiny, but is not quite as

Control word meanings:

        For a given control word, x:

        x < 0   Absolute value specifies the number of unique words to
                take from the data section (from 1 to 32767).
        x > 0   Specifies the number of times to repeat the next word
                taken from the data section (from 1 to 32767).

        Note that a control word of 0 is possible but meaningless.

Format of expanded data:

   The expanded data is  not simply screen memory bitmap  data; instead the
four  bitplanes are  separated,  and  the  data  within  each  bitplane  is
presented  vertically instead  of horizontally.   (This  results in  better

   To clarify, data for a full screen would appear in the following order:
   bitplane 0, word 0, scanline 0
   bitplane 0, word 0, scanline 1
   bitplane 0, word 0, scanline 199
   bitplane 0, word 1, scanline 0
   bitplane 0, word 1, scanline 1
   bitplane 0, word 1, scanline 199
   bitplane 0, word 79, scanline 199
   bitplane 1, word 0, scanline 0
   bitplane 3, word 79, scanline 199

Note however, that the data does not usually refer to an entire screen, but
rather to the smaller "change box," whose size is given in the frame

<Animatic Film> *.FLM (low resolution only)

1 word          number of frames
16 words        palette
1 word          speed (0 - 99; value is 99 - # vblanks to delay between
1 word          direction (0 = forwards, 1 = backwards)
1 word          end action (what to do after the last frame)
                0 = pause, then repeat from beginning
                1 = immediately repeat from beginning
                2 = reverse (change direction)
1 word          width of film in pixels
1 word          height of film in pixels
1 word          Animatic version number (major) [< 2]
1 word          Animatic version number (minor)
1 long          magic number 27182818 (hex)
3 longs         reserved for expansion (should be all zeros)
32 words        total for header

? words         image data (words of screen memory) for each frame, in

<Animaster Sprite Bank> *.ASB (low resolution only)

1 word          number of frames - 1
1 word          ?
1 byte          maximum width, in pixels
1 byte          maximum height, in pixels
16 words        palette
38 bytes        total for header

For each frame {
1 word          width of this frame (in pixels) - 1
1 word          height of this frame (in pixels) - 1
1 word          ? 
? words         image data (words of screen memory)


9 words         ?
1 long          $19861987 (magic number?)
1 long          offset from this long to header for low resolution 
                parameter block (if past end of file, no low res frames)
1 long          offset from this long to header for med resolution 
                parameter block (if past end of file, no med res frames)
1 long          offset from this long to header for high resolution 
                parameter block (if past end of file, no high res frames)
1 word          number of low resolution frames
1 word          number of medium resolution frames
1 word          number of high resolution frames

For each frame {
1 long          offset to data (probably only used internally by STOS)
1 byte          width in words (multiply by 16 to get width in pixels)
1 byte          height in pixels
1 byte          X hotspot location
1 byte          Y hotspot location

(The format implies other stuff could be here.)

1 long          ["PALT" $50414C54]
16 words        palette

?               words of data for each frame, in the order mentioned in the
                header.  Monoplanar mask data follows image data for each
? words         total

   The frames often seem to be in semi-random order, not necessarily in the
order they are to be animated. 

<GEM Bit Image> *.IMG
1 word          version number of image file [1]
1 word          length of header in words [usually 8]
1 word          number of color planes [1 for monochrome]
1 word          pattern length in bytes [1-8, usually 2 for screen images]
1 word          pixel width in microns (1/1000 mm, 25400 microns per inch)
1 word          pixel height in microns
1 word          line width in pixels
1 word          number of lines
? words         header length defined in 2nd word of header
? bytes         data

NOTES:  If the image  is a color image (planes > 1), the  planes are stored
separately starting  with plane 0.   There is, however, no  standard way of
storing the  color palette.  Some programs may save the palette in separate
files,  some may  extend the  header.   For this  reason, you  should never
assume  the header is 8 words  long, always get the  header length from the
2nd word of the header.  Also, the line width in the 7th word is the number
of  pixels in a line.  Since the  data is encoded in byte-wide packets, the
actual unpacked line width is always a multiple of 8, and may be 1-7 pixels
longer than the length specified in the header.

For each byte x in the data section,
        x = 0           Pattern/scanline run.
                        Read the next byte, n (unsigned).
                        If n > 0 then:
                                Read a number of bytes equal to the
                                length" word in the header.  Repeat this
                                pattern n times.
                        If n = 0 then:
                                Scanline run.  Data for the next scanline
                                is to be used multiple times.  Read the
                                following record:
                                1 byte          flag byte [$FF]
                                1 byte          number of times to use
                                                next scanline data
                                The data for the next scanline follows,
                                compressed normally.
        x = 80 (hex)    Uncompressed bit string.  The next byte
                        determines the number of bytes to use
                        literally.  The literal data bytes follow.
        otherwise       Solid run.  The value of x determines
                        what to draw.  The high bit specifies whether
                        the pixels are set or cleared.  A 1 indicates
                        a byte-run using $FF, a 0 indicates a byte-run
                        using $00.  The low 7 bits, taken as an unsigned
                        quantity, specify the length of the run in bytes.

<GEM Metafile>  *.GEM

Marcel Boom <> recently sent me this
format description.  I have reproduced it here, largely unchanged.

The file consists out of a header and the data records. The header has
the following format:

word mf_header:         should be -1, which indicates a metafile
word mf_hlength:        The length of the header part (usually 24 words)
word mf_version:        Version number (usually 101)
word mf_ndcrcfl:        0: NDC coordinates, 2: Raster coordinates
word mf_extends1:       Optional, minimal used x coordinate
word mf_extends2:       Optional, minimal used y coordinate
word mf_extends3:       Optional, maximal used x coordinate
word mf_extends4:       Optional, maximal used y coordinate
word mf_width:          Optional, page width in 0.1 mm
word mf_height:         Optional, page height in 0.1 mm
word mf_coords1:        Optional, coordinate system param 1
word mf_coords2:        Optional, coordinate system param 2
word mf_coords3:        Optional, coordinate system param 3
word mf_coords4:        Optional, coordinate system param 4
word mf_imgflag:        0: No images, 1 contains bit images
word mf_reserved1:      reserved.


> SOUNDMAN ANNOUNCED STR InfoFile           Logitech Announces Soundman

                        Logitech Announces SoundMan(tm) 16

             CD-Quality, Stereo 16-Bit Board Features High-End
          Synthesized & Digitized Sound for Multimedia, Recreation,
                        Music, and General PC Audio

          SoundMan 16 incorporates all the features consumers expect
          from high-end sound today: 20-voice MIDI support, 44 KHz
          digitization, 16-bit digital audio playback and recording,
          guaranteed SoundBlaster 1.5 compatibility, and a variety of
          software and hardware enhancements designed to optimize and
          streamline installation and use. The product carries a
          suggested retail price of $289, yielding a street price
          under $200.  Logitech expects SoundMan 16, with its full
          feature set and aggressive pricing, to quickly assume market

          Logitech chose the Yamaha OPL-3 chip for synthesized sound
          and the Media Vision 16-bit Spectrum(tm) chip set, both of
          which provide optimal sound quality and compatibility with
          prevailing industry software and hardware standards. In a
          separate statement today, Logitech also announced the
          formation of a multimedia partnership with Media Vision.

          "The PC audio market holds tremendous opportunity for
          Logitech," says Pierluigi Zappacosta, Logitech president.

          "Nearly two million sound cards were shipped in 1992, and
          about four million are forecast to ship this year. Logitech
          is committed to providing high-quality sound products to fit
          a variety of customer needs ranging from business audio to
          multimedia and entertainment, and SoundMan 16 is a flagship

          Logitech brings significant value to the sound market,
          offering company size, brand recognition, established
          channel penetration, and a variety of customer programs
          including seven-day-a-week technical support, fax-back, BBS,
          a CompuServe forum, guaranteed 100-percent compatibility,
          and liberal warranty policies.

          A key advantage of SoundMan 16 is its "intelligent
          installation" process. "We leveraged our vast experience
          from scanner and mouse bus board installation and design to
          produce a board virtually anyone can install," says Dave
          Pelton, SoundMan 16 product marketing manager. "The board
          features completely software-selectable IRQ, DMA, and IO
          address, meaning the user sets no jumpers or DIP switches."

          "We spent more than six months on the installation process
          alone," says Pelton. "The intelligent installation program
          actually examines the system for existing in-use channels
          before making a setting recommendation; the user can then
          test and reset the settings, guided and assisted throughout
          the process by the software."

          SoundMan 16 features jacks for stereo input, such as from a
          CD player, and amplified (4-watt) output, such as to
          speakers or headphones. There is also a mono microphone jack
          and a combination MIDI/joystick port. On the board, an array
          of pins provides connectivity with virtually any type of
          internal CD-ROM audio. A hardware mixer offers individual
          control of FM, line-IN, internal CD-audio IN, digital audio,
          and microphone audio.

          For software, SoundMan 16 supports both Windows 3.1 and DOS,
          with separate controls and drivers for each. Both drivers
          set and retain board settings and "talk" with each other, so
          that settings in one environment are the same as the other.
          SoundMan 16 features a Windows "Pocket Mixer" applet that
          allows fine control of all channel volumes, bass, treble,
          balance, and other features in a small but sophisticated
          format. The "Pocket Recorder" allows high-level (16-bit, 44
          KHz stereo) recordings in Windows, along with a variety of
          software editing enhancements for digitized (.WAV) files
          such as softening, echo/reverb, and tonal changes. DOS
          utilities include a mixer program and a program for playing
          and recording .WAV files. WAV and MIDI sample files are
          shipped with the package.

          SoundMan 16 requires an IBM PC/AT or compatible with a 386SX
          processor or higher, DOS 3.3 or higher, Windows 3.1 or
          higher for Windows use, 640K RAM (2 megabytes recommended),
          one 16-bit (full) slot, a hard drive, and speakers or
          headphones for output and a microphone or other audio device
          (e.g., a CD player) for input. A separate, optional cable
          will be available for connecting a MIDI device or internal
          CD-ROM drive.

          In addition to SoundMan 16, Logitech recently introduced and
          shipped AudioMan, a desktop audio device incorporating a
          speaker and microphone connecting by cable to the parallel
          port.  AudioMan is targeted at and optimized for business
          audio applications such as voice annotation to spreadsheets
          and word processing.

          Founded in 1981, Logitech achieved worldwide revenues of
          $218.8 million during FY 1992 (which ended March 31, 1992).
          Retail and OEM Senseware products of the company and its
          affiliates include pointing devices (such as mice and
          trackballs), hand-held scanners, digital cameras, pen
          digitizers, joysticks, sound products, and related software
          applications for IBM, Macintosh, and other platforms.
          Logitech International, the financial holding company for
          the Logitech Group, is traded publicly in Switzerland on the
          Zurich and Geneva exchanges. With operational headquarters
          in Fremont, Calif., the group maintains manufacturing
          facilities in Fremont, California; Hsinchu, Taiwan;
          Shanghai, China; and Cork, Ireland; and offices in major
          cities in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East.

          For more information about SoundMan 16 or other products,
          call Logitech Sales at (800) 231-7717.


                       Logitech and the Sound Market

                           Questions and Answers

          Why is Logitech entering the sound market when there are
          already a fair number of strong players?

          The sound market is one of the most exciting places to be in
          today's high-tech marketplace. Its potential is enormous,
          with plenty of room for additional players -- especially
          when the entrant is a company with Logitech's strengths:
          strong brand recognition, established channels, extensive
          customer support programs, and a track record of bringing
          quality products to market at an affordable price. Logitech
          has an additional compelling reason for entering the sound
          market: the significance of sound as key component in our
          family of "Senseware" products designed to enhance the
          human/machine interface by giving human-like senses to the

          Why did Logitech choose Media Vision as its technology
          partner for the SoundMan 16 product?

          Compatibility and quality are key issues for Logitech, which
          is aggressively pursuing the sound market, both as it exists
          today, and in its potential for the future. Media Vision has
          produced a successful chip set that adheres to prevailing
          market standards.  What's more, the fact that Media Vision
          has a legal right to incorporate SoundBlaster compatibility
          at the hardware level is an important factor for a product
          being introduced now. The high quality of Media Vision's
          sound was also factor in Logitech's choice.

          What does the Media Vision/Logitech alliance mean with
          respect to Logitech's interest in Advanced Gravis?

          Because we are seriously committed to sound, and all
          directions that this market can take, we are maintaining our
          interest in Advanced Gravis as an important element in our
          potential product evolution. Gravis' wave-table synthesis
          capability is at the cutting edge of sound technology.
          Logitech believes that wave-table synthesis will assume a
          greater mainstream position as the sound market matures. In
          fact, we are assisting Advanced Gravis to be a leading
          manufacturer in the European sound market.

          Logitech already has a sound product -- AudioMan -- on the
          market.  This seems to be in keeping with the general "look
          and feel" of other Logitech products, i.e., an elegantly
          designed desktop accessory. Why a board?

          AudioMan addresses a different market: Business Audio. If we
          are to truly continue our commitment to the "Senseware"
          concept, then we need to explore and produce a variety of
          "audio" senses _ in the same way that our ScanMan and
          FotoMan products address different aspects of computer
          "sight," while mice and trackballs provide choices in the
          computer's sense of "touch."

          What sound technology is Logitech ultimately supporting?

          Logitech is keeping pace with all major evolving
          technologies in the sound market.

          Why did you choose not to incorporate a CD-ROM hardware
          interface in your product?

          To limit a product to one single CD-ROM interface standard
          can cause as many problems as it solves. Proprietary
          interfaces limit the customer's choice to one brand of
          CD-ROM, while SCSI interfaces add significant cost to the
          product and force customers to buy more expensive SCSI
          CD-ROM drives. Since Logitech's goal was to produce a
          high-quality, flexible product at an affordable price (under
          $200 street price), we chose to provide our users with
          quality sound while leaving them free to configure their
          systems according to their personal needs and preferences.
          The hardware does include a CD audio port, which accepts
          input from internal or external CD-ROM drives.

          What about future compatibility?

          Logitech is guaranteeing 100-percent compatibility between
          the SoundMan 16 product and any SoundBlaster-compatible
          software on the market. In addition, the more a chip is
          used, the better the chance for industry-wide compatibility.
          Software publishers will determine the longevity of
          standards by creating a critical mass of applications and
          driving the market.

          What about potential copyright infringement?

          Media Vision's agreement with Creative Labs has addressed
          the copyright issue. We are limited only by our imagination.

          Why have you chosen to compete with Microsoft, which is also
          producing a soundboard?

          Microsoft's soundboard, like Logitech's AudioMan, is
          targeted at the business market, where Windows-based
          software has a formidable toehold. Because the Microsoft
          product is neither SoundBlaster- nor DOS-compatible, it is
          not appropriate for the huge DOS-based PC game environment,
          which today represents 90 percent of today's total sound


> STR Mail Call             "...a place for the readers to be heard"

                             STReport's MailBag

                    Messages * NOT EDITED * for content

>From CIS' Atari Fora

About CeBiT

#: 84031 S1/Forum Business
    31-Mar-93  11:59:22
Sb: #83998-#Downloads
Fm: Clive Parker 100012,2571
To: - Dazzz - 70374,2241 (X)

I am preparing a detailed report which I will upload tomorrow. However,
there were NO STs on show, just Falcons and TTs. There were 60 separate
Atari displays with lots of stuff on each one. The official Atari line is
"what consumer model" with regard to the Falcon. Developers I spoke to said
they have not been told what the second machine will look like, but they
did tell me that Atari would be shipping machines to developers 4 months
before shipping to distributors and that there was unlikely to be any sign
of the machine on sale before Christmas. Besides, Atari has spent a
fortune on glossy Falcon030 advertising leaflets and brochures featuring
the STE style case (in seven languages) so it looks as though they are
sticking to the current model for a while. Official Atari sales figures are
put at 2000 sold in the UK and 5000 in Germany so far...

Clive Parker, ST FORMAT

#: 84042 S1/Forum Business
    31-Mar-93  17:17:52
Sb: #84031-Downloads
Fm: - Dazzz - 70374,2241
To: Clive Parker 100012,2571 (X)

Well two words spring to mind....  Oh Dear!

...or perhaps that should....Too Dear!


#: 84049 S1/Forum Business
    31-Mar-93  23:19:50
Sb: #84031-#Downloads
Fm: Peter J. Joseph 71540,3347
To: Clive Parker 100012,2571 (X)

      So are we suppose to expect to see a bulge in the Falcon case then?

#: 84076 S1/Forum Business
    01-Apr-93  11:15:23
Sb: #84049-Downloads
Fm: Clive Parker 100012,2571
To: Peter J. Joseph 71540,3347 (X)

No bulge! The board fits on the internal expansion connector and fits very
nicely thank you. It gets a bit hot though.

Clive Parker, STF

#: 38371 S8/Hot Topics
    31-Mar-93  12:40:18
Sb: #38359-#Falcon Programs
Fm: Victor Wood - Munich 100041,222
To: Dan McNamee (Atari) 70007,5166 (X)

Well I've watched the CeBit show on N3 almost every night, and N-TV as and
when I had the chance. I saw Atari mentioned exactly zero times!
No sign of the stand in the background...Nothing!

Did Atari announce anything new?  Maybe a Falcon040/060 or in a decent


#: 38375 S8/Hot Topics
    31-Mar-93  14:27:01
Sb: #38371-Falcon Programs
Fm: SYSOP*Bob Retelle 76702,1466
To: Victor Wood - Munich 100041,222 (X)

Victor, from reading messages from UseNet, there were several third-party
developers with new Atari products at CeBit, but nothing new from Atari at


#: 38379 S8/Hot Topics
    31-Mar-93  18:49:27
Sb: #38371-#Falcon Programs
Fm: Dan McNamee (Atari) 70007,5166
To: Victor Wood - Munich 100041,222 (X)


    I really don't know.  I'm in the TOS development group, so I'm not
informed about anything on the shows.


#: 38369 S17/Community Square
    31-Mar-93  08:58:11
Sb: #38279-#platforms
Fm: INTERSECT Software 76004,1577
To: John J. Amsler 70275,676

The bottom end in the Mac line and the bottom end in the Atari Falcon line
are amazingly close in price <grin>, some would think that it's no

Of course the Mac has no 56001.  I suspect that the top of the line Falcon
will be more of a bargain when compared to the Mac's top of the line (with


#: 38374 S17/Community Square
    31-Mar-93  13:20:51
Sb: #38369-#platforms
Fm: Atari Interface 70007,4640
To: INTERSECT Software 76004,1577 (X)


When price of hardware isn't the debate anymore in a consumer's mind, they
go to the software that's available for the hardware. There, the Mac beats
Atari even with one hand tied behind it's back.  The next issue is where to
get it fixed if there's a problem. Again, Mac beats Atari.

So, the problem Atari faces is credibility and software base, and they're
severely lacking in both.

                        Patricia Snyder-Rayl

#: 38389 S17/Community Square
    01-Apr-93  02:03:24
Sb: #38374-#platforms
Fm: Greg Wageman 74016,352
To: Atari Interface 70007,4640 (X)


And well they should.  The recommended way of choosing a computer these
days is to figure out what you are mainly going to do with it, and then buy
the computer that will best handle that task, within your budget.  Not
everyone needs a screaming 486DX2/66 with 256K cache and 500 meg hard disk,
if all they're going to do is run Word Perfect.  Mind you, it would run
Word Perfect _really fast_. :-)

In the Atari world we have lately gotten used to figuring out what it is we
can _do_, and then enhancing our computers to make it work. :-(  To tell
the truth there is not a lot of new software appearing out there.  I am
reminded of this every time I read a tabloid like "Micro Times" and see
three gazillion ads for the latest, greatest program since Visicalc that
runs on Windows and sells for $29.95.

Case in point: I am trying to get CDROM and, more specifically, Photo CD
capability.  But can I get it from one vendor?  No!  I've got to buy a
drive somewhere, buy a Link to connect it, and get Photo-CD capable
software from yet another source!  If I had a PC I could walk into Fry's
tomorrow and buy a CDROM bundle from Sony for $350 which includes drive,
interface card, software and at least half-a-dozen CDROM titles.  Vendors
on the Mac platform are falling over each other to provide Photo CD

This is reality, folks, and it is becoming more painful for this Silicon
Valley resident every day.  WHERE ARE THE FALCONS?


#: 38392 S17/Community Square
    01-Apr-93  09:03:32
Sb: #38389-#platforms
Fm: INTERSECT Software 76004,1577
To: Greg Wageman 74016,352

The other side of the coin is that you are probably going to have a problem
installing the CD-ROM card, with either EMS conflicts if it's a SCSI card,
or non-support for SCSI cards in the bios (Packard Bell 386SX).

And $350 sounds cheap for a SONY CD-ROM drive.  Last time I looked that was
the wholesale cost.

With the Atari TT or Falcon, you just plug it in, put the driver software
in the Auto folder and play.  Play what though <sigh>.


#: 38393 S17/Community Square
    01-Apr-93  11:03:00
Sb: #38392-platforms
Fm: Atari Interface 70007,4640
To: INTERSECT Software 76004,1577


You may say that Sony CD ROM drives at $350 sound cheap to you, but
retailers are selling NEC drives and piles of roms bundled with it for
$299.  Last sunday, a CD ROM drive could have been had for $189 that was
for the PC platform.

BobR can speak to the other concerns you raised about PC compatibility. I
know that on the Mac platform, a CD Rom is easy to install, use and
increases productivity.

                        Pattie Rayl

About the ARC - LZH - ZIP preferences....

#: 84080 S2/Telecommunications
    01-Apr-93  13:00:38
Sb: #84055-#File formats?
Fm: SYSOP*Ron Luks 76703,254
To: Richard Gunter 70117,2565 (X)

   Glad you asked the question.  It gives me a good chance to survey the
membership. heh heh

    The Atari community has been doing quite nice using ARC and LZH for the
past couple of years.  Both formats are supported by Charles Johnson's
ARCSHELL and work across multiple computer platforms.

   Recently, a few folks have started to upload files in ZIP format, the
most popular PC format and there was a big hue and cry (myself included)
that we didn't need a 3rd format to deal with in the Atari community.  I've
started to rethink this position and would welcome feedback from all the
members.  Should we accept ZIP files? Do we need 3 compression formats? 
Should we keep LZH and ZIP and drop ARC?

   Your comments please.


#: 84100 S2/Telecommunications
    01-Apr-93  19:06:57
Sb: #84080-File formats?
Fm: Dana P. Jacobson 71051,3327
To: SYSOP*Ron Luks 76703,254

Keep ARC and LZH, please.


#: 84104 S2/Telecommunications
    01-Apr-93  19:15:00
Sb: #84080-File formats?
Fm: James Port [MIDI] 76702,1133
To: SYSOP*Ron Luks 76703,254

Ron, being in Music and MIDI, which is so non-platform specific, I've
gotten quite use to dealing with whatever compression scheme is used.  To
be honest it helps a lot my first ARC utility came with a Shell that didn't
work, and I had to learn the command line.  This has come in so handy.  In
fact, I still prefer to use the command line as opposed to a shell.  I'd
rather have the files than scare someone off because they haven't got the
"preferred" compression tool.

#: 84107 S2/Telecommunications
    01-Apr-93  21:04:11
Sb: #84080-File formats?
Fm: David D. Hagood 73437,3162
To: SYSOP*Ron Luks 76703,254

Personally, I have STZIP and ARCSHELL both set up as applications taking
ZIP, .ARC, and .LZH files. Then, I download the file, double-click on it,
and it de-compresses. No big deal. I like STZIP's front end better than
ARCSHELL, and ZIP gets better compression than LZH as of Version 2.0. Plus,
being compatible with the Blue at work does have its advantages.

As far as self-extracting archives: They are great if they contain only
machine specific files (self-extracting versions of ARC and ZIP leap to
mind) but they STINK for non-machine specific files (text files, GIF's).

#: 84109 S2/Telecommunications
    01-Apr-93  22:01:03
Sb: #84080-File formats?
Fm: Peter J. Joseph 71540,3347
To: SYSOP*Ron Luks 76703,254

      I'm sure if you've read any of my replies on this subject you already
know my position.  I think ARC and LHARC are sufficient and I vote NO to
ZIP or anything else unless it can be proven to be _markedly_ more
efficient than either of the two aforementioned routines.

                              < Peter >

#: 84112 S2/Telecommunications
    01-Apr-93  23:12:41
Sb: #84080-File formats?
Fm: Richard Gunter 70117,2565
To: SYSOP*Ron Luks 76703,254

>> ... Should we accept ZIP files? Do we need 3 compression formats? Should
we keep LZH and ZIP and drop ARC? ... <<

To take your questions in order, I have no problem with accepting ZIP
files, but would draw the line at ZOO -- in my view, it's more trouble than
it's worth.

We don't NEED three compression formats, but my impression is that there's
not much new stuff being uploaded in ARC format these days.  (With your
finger on the library pulses, you may be able to correct that impression).

It wouldn't break my heart to drop ARC, but as compared with LZH, ARC 6.02
does a far superior job of compressing nested folders.  LZH programs just
don't do that well at all.  ZIP, of course, does.

I do have one qualm about ZIP, specifically the STZIP program from France.
When working on my Current Notes series about archivers, I was favorably
impressed with the program, but later had a little problem taking a
compressed file in the reverse (ST to IBM) direction.  PKZIP 1.x would not
extract the STZIP file, even though I'd used a compression algorithm that
it should have supported.  I haven't had time to check the newer version of
STZIP against the new PKZIP package.  If there's full compatibility between
the two, I'd think using ZIP would promote cross platform compatibility.  I
do frequently download IBM files, and routinely do the extraction on my
Atari with no difficulties at all.

FWIW, the new PKZIP isn't backward compatible with its predecessor -- it
can extract files generated by the older version, but cannot create files
extractable by the older program.  It isn't just our little corner of the
world with compatibility problems...

Richard G.

#: 84120 S2/Telecommunications
    02-Apr-93  04:05:32
Sb: #84080-File formats?
Fm: carl barron 75066,3204
To: SYSOP*Ron Luks 76703,254

    Personally 3 or 4 different archivers does not bother me.  As I visit
and obtain files from non -atari specific fora on a regular basis, I have
most of them and in there 'latest and greatest' versions.   I only use arc
if needed to be 'hyper' portable.  Lzh most of the time.  But I see no
problems with zoo files, most of the zoo'ed stuff is technical anyway. It
does a better job than arc at archiving directory trees.  Zip does as well.

I find lzh is too confusing with directory trees.  I even have a gem shell
to un-arj.   Wait to that hits the ST world, an actual compressor. What
then another war.   The other service did restrict once and gave up on that
for the most part.

  No self-extracts is my preference.  Because many of them, will not allow
selective extraction, extraction only if the file does not already exist,
etc..  Zipped self-extracts are a real pain to a floppy user.  Further it
is not conceivable to create a self-extracting archive with a custom
compressor, that nobody has.  (Who needs it just double click and it
extracts..., scenario can be interesting.)

    For all interested STZIP,LHARC and ARC will extract PC created self-ex
tracts created with the respective program, on an ST/TT. (*.EXE
decompression is doable with ease on an ST/TT.)  Seems though the logic of
restriction is not to reasonable at present.  As said before, if I receive
a *.fcf file that is what I will upload.  (fcf is a fictitious,so far,
extender for 'finest compression format')  If it is not wanted, I will not
waste my time uploading it.

#: 84126 S2/Telecommunications
    02-Apr-93  07:12:33
Sb: #84080-File formats?
Fm: Clive Parker 100012,2571
To: SYSOP*Ron Luks 76703,254

I'm quite happy with all three archivers! I have always used Arcshell to
cope with ARC and LZH, and it is no great inconvenience to me to use STZIP
2.1. I just stick the programs on the Desktop and click on the relevant
icon! It is no harder to select one over the other, what's all the fuss?

Clive Parker, ST FORMAT.

About Atari's level of cooperation with developers...

#: 84032 S17/Community Square
    31-Mar-93  13:08:07
Sb: #84013-#Atari: A 4 Letter Word?
Fm: GST Software 71351,332
To: carl barron 75066,3204 (X)

I suspect that whatever you'd call it we'd just settle for sensible

We probably only need a Falcon for about a week to fix things. Can Atari
lend us one - will they hell, they want us to pay for one. We don't see why
we should shell out several hundred quid for something that will be only
used for one week.

Result - stalemate and no updating of 1wp and Timeworks to the Falcon for
the moment.

We of course are a company who have developed stuff that they've bundled
with past machines - so obviously we don't have a proven track record of
working on their machines <grin>.


#: 84035 S17/Community Square
    31-Mar-93  15:04:08
Sb: #84013-#Atari: A 4 Letter Word?
Fm: SYSOP*Bob Retelle 76702,1466
To: carl barron 75066,3204 (X)

I agree that the new "two tiered" developer program is a lot better than
the older one where it was all or nothing...

If Atari really wanted to encourage active development of software for
their systems though, I think that it would be to their benefit to sell
hardware at cost to those who have bought the documentation...  sure, there
may be a few people who just do it for the discount, but why inhibit
development because of the risk of losing a little profit on a few sales..?

Does it REALLY cost Atari $300 to put the documentation in a box and mail
it out..?   Aren't they making something of a margin on that transaction..?

(I know they are, Atari representatives have said that they make a profit
on every developers' kit they sell, so they're not about to give them
away).  I really doubt that anyone who signs up as a developer just to get
the discount on hardware is likely to make use of the support facilities
for developers, so there wouldn't be any additional cost there.

The end result would be to encourage beginning programmers to support
Atari's new products, instead of moving on to other, more lucrative
markets...   and we'd all benefit..!


(All this is just my feelings.. we've all heard Atari's reasons for having
things the way they are, and I know they're not likely to change...)

#: 84056 S17/Community Square
    01-Apr-93  01:15:13
Sb: #84035-#Atari: A 4 Letter Word?
Fm: Richard Gunter 70117,2565
To: SYSOP*Bob Retelle 76702,1466 (X)

>> ... Atari representatives have said that they make a profit on every
developers' kit they sell, so they're not about to give them away ... <<

I guess Atari management hasn't been talking to IBM lately; the OS/2 2.1
beta CD at $15 doesn't look like a terribly high-profit item...

Richard G.

#: 84113 S17/Community Square
    02-Apr-93  00:50:39
Sb: #84056-Atari: A 4 Letter Word?
Fm: SYSOP*Bob Retelle 76702,1466
To: Richard Gunter 70117,2565

Guess IBM just doesn't know where the profits are...

Heck.. by "giving away"  the OS/2 CD-ROM (which includes their Developers'
Toolkit) for $15, all they're going to get is a lot of OS/2 specific
applications people can buy and run under OS/2..

They may sell millions of copies of OS/2, but just think of the $285
missing out on...!


#: 84068 S17/Community Square
    01-Apr-93  02:04:02
Sb: #84035-#Atari: A 4 Letter Word?
Fm: Greg Wageman 74016,352
To: SYSOP*Bob Retelle 76702,1466 (X)


Just to set the record straight, the non-commercial developer's package
costs $140, not $300, and renewal is $40 per year.  That includes Atari's
developer software, which is mostly junk (does _anyone_ actually _use_
Alcyon C?), although the HDX software and sample code can be useful.

The documentation is highly valuable, and worth the cost, since it
comprises the "horse's mouth".  If Atari published their developer's
newsletter more frequently, it would be more topical and also more
valuable.  I think I've gotten exactly one since I registered, nearly a
year ago.


#: 84114 S17/Community Square
    02-Apr-93  00:55:12
Sb: #84068-Atari: A 4 Letter Word?
Fm: SYSOP*Bob Retelle 76702,1466
To: Greg Wageman 74016,352

Greg, the $300 I mentioned was for the old "exclusive" developers package..

at that time, it was an all or nothing thing, and toward the end of that
program you had to go through a minor inquisition to qualify.

With the new "two-tiered" program, and with the general release of all the
documentation in smaller packages, things have improved greatly..   there's
no market anymore for any products you might create with that newly
available documentation, but at least the docs are readily available now.

I really miss the days of "De Re Atari"...


#: 84082 S17/Community Square
    01-Apr-93  15:22:43
Sb: #84016-#Atari: A 4 Letter Word?
Fm: Alex Kiernan 100025,2062
To: STReport - Ralph 70007,4454 (X)

>Now, with the venture in Europe at CeBiT beginning to appear as an
>exercise in gross mediocrity

I'm sorry I simply don't understand this comment. As far as I can see Atari
had an _excellent_ CeBIT with plenty of Falcons, lots of Falcon titles, and
big crowds around the stand most of the time.

What is your source for the comment (given that I didn't see you there, not
to say you weren't there though)?


#: 84111 S17/Community Square
    01-Apr-93  22:01:29
Sb: #84082-Atari: A 4 Letter Word?
Fm: Peter J. Joseph 71540,3347
To: Alex Kiernan 100025,2062

Alex, don't worry.  Ralph's statements are difficult for many of us to
understand sometimes.  :)  He's just what you'd call a Pyromaniac of
Journalism....he likes to start fires and then write about 'em.

                              < Peter >

Editor Note:
     Alex, the big point to understand is the total LACK of any type of
Atari related coverage coming from CeBiT.  They put a "Director of
Communications" in place that seemingly fails to COMMUNICATE except when it
comes to back room shenanigans.  The reports coming out of Germany have
been next to nothing and those we've received have clearly painted a very
docile picture with little or nothing to add to what we already know.  "If
you don't live in Europe you don't get an opportunity to have the latest
Atari hardware and software."  On top of which support, (except for very
few), is often left wanting.
     Peter, cute.... real cute but no cigar!  :-)   Thanks for thinking of

#: 84047 S17/Community Square
    31-Mar-93  23:19:27
Sb: #84009-#Common interfaces
Fm: Peter J. Joseph 71540,3347
To: Greg Wageman 74016,352 (X)

Absolutely; many folks could learn a lesson or two from Charles Johnson.
It's funny.  Atari computers are about the easiest computers to use.  So
why do people go out of their way to make it more difficult by using
umpteen different methods of compression.  When I first got ARC.TTP, I'd
never even heard of compression and I was enthralled at such an easy way to
save disk space; not to mention download time.  Then came LHARC and I
thought, 'Now why are they doing this?'  Well then Charles J. was nice
enough to come across with a shell to pull the two together nicely.  So
that's what I use and that's all I will use.  Now it's a joke.  There's too
many different methods out there and the amount of time one saves over the
other in download time is rapidly becoming a moot point.  I am all for Ron
and the other sysops putting a stop to this nonsense and setting up some
standards (preferably ARC & LHARC) for compression routines.  Think of the
library space that would be freed if they flushed all the unfavorable
compression files out.  ;)

                              < Peter >

Editor Note; 
     Peter, we are and have learned many good things from Charles F.
Johnson.  Among which one of the most important is "never paint yourself
into a corner".  The only joke there'll be will be on us if we adopt an
attitude of wearing horse blinders.  The whole point of computing in both
the business and hobby environment is the ease of exchanging information. 
Its the greatest plus that computing has.  Who's to say that "ZIP" is an
unfavorable form of compression?  Certainly a good majority of the world's
computer users can't be totally wrong.  Or, is it another case of the old
human thing of resisting change?

>From Delphi's Atari Areas..

51823 1-APR 18:51  Desktop Publishing
     Calamus for Windows NT
     From: OCS          To: ALL

According to a message in MausNet DMC plans to release Calamus (SL?) for
Windows NT at about the same time the operating system itself will be


51827 1-APR 22:33  Desktop Publishing
     RE: Calamus for Windows NT (Re: Msg 51823)
     From: ANALOG4      To: OCS (NR)

Hmmmm. That would be interesting.  I assume that they've done some heavy
market research, because it's going to be real tough to compete with
packages like PageMaker, Ventura, Quark Express, and any other number of
top-of-the-line PC DTP packages.  Real tough, indeed.



                       STReport's "EDITORIAL CARTOON"

> A "Quotable Quote"           "More Smoke & Mirrors!"

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                   STReport International Online Magazine
                      -* [S]ilicon [T]imes [R]eport *-
 STR Online!           "YOUR INDEPENDENT NEWS SOURCE"        April 02, 1993
 Since 1987      copyright (c) 1987-92 All Rights Reserved          No.9.14
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