ST Report: 23-Feb-90 #408

From: Phillip M. Chow (aa400)
Date: 03/08/90-05:21:45 PM Z

From: aa400 (Phillip M. Chow)
Subject: ST Report: 23-Feb-90  #408
Date: Thu Mar  8 17:21:45 1990

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  February 23, 1990                                               No.4.08
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 > 02/23/90: CPU Newswire? #408  The Original 16/32 bit Online Magazine! 
     - The Editor's Podium    - CPU REPORT        - CPU STATUS REPORT
     - THE ICD ADVANTAGE!!    - The ALTERNATIVE   - Vector Intercepts
     - PCD2  HELP!            - NASA Schedules    - CRASWELL Interview
     - CIS NEW FileFinder     - DynaCADD p V      - CPU CONFIDENTIAL

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 CPU/STR's support  BBS, NODE  # 350  invites systems using Forem ST BBS to
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 the Atari ST computers through an excellent International ST Mail Network.
 > The Editor's Podium?

     Atari offers the STE, the Megafile 44 and the Stacy for sale  all over
 the  globe  but  not  in  the  USA  WHY??   Not that its any great news or
 anything like that, but we make mention of this item to point  out another
 nail in  the coffin  being built  by Atari US called the US market.  Their
 operations in the US market have been abominable.  Seriously, though, if I
 don't laugh  at their actions in the USA, I'd find it so very easy to cry!
 What in heaven's name are they trying to do?   Kill this  market, a market
 they have  half dead  already?   Can the  rumors of an exodus be true?  Is
 Atari going belly up in the US computer market because they can't compete?
 Is it  all over  but the  shouting?   What is on the horizon for the US ST

     The time is at hand for some real answers from Atari.   We (the users)
 don't see  any substantial  advertising.   Dealers across  the country are
 upset that they cannot get or sell the Lynx.  And now, for the best yet is
 they (dealers)  cannot offer  the same "thirty day satisfaction Guarantee"
 the factory does on the sales of Portfolios.  

     Clearly, Atari needs real direction, the  first quarter  of 1990  is a
 dead duck, what have they in store for the rest of the year?  They are not
 attending Spring Comdex, at least the new president of Atari  US will have
 a better  chance of  seeing Fall/Comdex..   Any  bets??  Now, we find that
 they are trying to tell us that an ex-executive from the beverage industry
 who is  heading up the combined Entertainment and Computer division in the
 USA is just what the doctor ordered.  Sounds more like a plumber operating
 in neurosurgery!    The only way I see this being a positive move is if he
 drowns the incompetents, in Sunnyvale who are killing Atari, in  a pool of
 benzene tainted  vichy water.   The  constant flow of disappointment after
 disappointment must come to an end.  Maybe the Aircraft Carrier really did
     The above  sounds so  very terminal  and upsetting,  well it is!  Call
 your local dealer and  ask if  they are  happy with  the relationship they
 have with Atari Corp.  That is, if there is a dealer in your area....

      I,  for  one,  am  very  uncomfortable  with  the  thought that a few
 concerned developers are heavily burdened with the decision  of whether or
 not the  new Mega  STE will  have the  MEGA bus  or the  VME bus.  Please,
 before anybody gets their wig bent outta shape, the whole  matter is being
 openly discussed  online.  Sorry guys, but this type of thing belongs in a
 questionnaire that the ENTIRE USERBASE can participate in.  Atari  has got
 to learn  that the  road to  success in  the US  marketplace is paved with
 satisfaction on both sides of the fence.  Not just  a one-sided  affair as
 it is  now.  All Europe and nuthin' much for the US.  It really has gotten
 to the point where everytime I hear or  read a  press release  coming from
 Atari, I  think of  lawyers, you know, (How do you tell a lawyer is lying?
 ..His lips are moving!) It truly  has gotten  to this.   One  cannot trust
 what Atari says, usually, its denied the following week.  
     I  am  down  on  the  present  leadership  of  Atari,  I feel they are
 misleading the Tramiels in a most "officious" manner.  Something has to be
 done.    And  it  must  be  done  fast.  The latest rumor in the executive
 recruitment field is; Go with Atari, its only  for a  short while  and the
 titles look great on your resume.  sheesh!



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           The system will now prompt you for your information.


 The Roundtable  is an  area of GEnie specifically set aside for owners and
 users of Atari ST computers, although all are welcome to participate.

 There are three main sections to the Roundtable:  the Bulletin  Board, the
 Software Library and the Real Time Conference area.

 The Bulletin  Board contains messages from Roundtable members on a variety
 of Topics,  organized under  several Categories.   These  messages are all
 Open and available for all to read (GEnie Mail should be used for private

 If you  have a question, comment, hot rumor or an answer to someone else's
 question, the Bulletin Board is the place to share it.

 The Software Library is  where we  keep the  Public Domain  software files
 that are  available to  all Roundtable members.  You can 'download' any of
 these files to your own computer system by using a  Terminal Program which
 uses the 'XMODEM' file-transfer method.  You can also share  your favorite
 Public Domain programs and files   with   other   Roundtable   members  by
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   Issue # 55

 By Michael Arthur

 Remember When....

       A company  named Metacomco  developed a  Unix-based operating system
 based on  the 68000  chip, and  when in late 1984, Commodore (after firing
 several of Amiga Corp.'s developers who  had been  designing an  OS around
 the  Exec  multitasking  OS  Kernel),  realized that they needed to have a
 complete OS for the Amiga within 6 months  in order  to introduce  it, and
 hired Metacomco to "quickly" port what became AmigaDOS to the Amiga?

       And remember  when a  group of  Amiga developers  designed a toolkit
 called the AmigaDOS Replacement Project, so  as to  provide a  work around
 for  the  crippling  problems  with  AmigaDOS,  which arose in the "quick"
 porting process?


                  FSF, The Hacker Ethic, and The GNU Manifesto

       In the late 1970s, as the  microcomputer industry  began to develop,
 many programmers  and computer experts believed that computers were a tool
 for exchanging information, and that this "information flow" should not be
 hindered  or  restricted.    This  belief  in  the "freedom of information
 exchange" became part of what was known as the "Hacker  Ethic".   This was
 when the  word "hacker" was used to honor and praise a computer "guru" for
 his abilities....

       Richard Stallman, who designed the well-known  EMACS text  editor in
 the 1970s,  decided to  create the  Free Software Foundation as part of an
 effort to place standards in computer software and  operating environments
 in the  public domain,  where this information could benefit all.  The FSF
 soon began the GNU  Project, whose  goals were  to establish  an operating
 system environment,  Unix utilities, and software which would be placed in
 the public domain, available for all to use.  Here is an  essay written by
 Richard  Stallman  when  he  established  the  GNU Project, which not only
 explains the goals of the FSF,  but provide  some insight  into the ideals
 behind the "Hacker Ethic"....

                             The GNU Manifesto

 by Richard M. Stallman

 What's GNU?  Gnu's Not Unix!

       GNU, which  stands for  Gnu's Not Unix, is the name for the complete
 Unix-compatible software system which I am  writing  so  that  I  can give
 source level  debugger, a  yacc-compatible parser generator, a linker, and
 around 35 utilities.  A shell (command interpreter) is nearly completed. A
 new portable optimizing C compiler has compiled itself and may be released
 this year.  An initial kernel exists but many more features are  needed to
 emulate  Unix.    When  the  kernel  and compiler are finished, it will be
 possible to distribute a GNU system suitable for program development.   We
 will  use  TeX  as  our  text  formatter,  but an nroff (Note: A Unix text
 editor) is  being worked  on.   We will  use the  free, portable X/Windows
 system as  well.  After this we will add a portable Common Lisp, an Empire
 game,  a  spreadsheet,  and  hundreds  of   other  things,   plus  on-line
 documentation.    We  hope  to  supply, eventually, everything useful that
 normally comes with a Unix system, and more.

       GNU will be able to run Unix programs, but will not be  identical to
 Unix.   We will  make all  improvements that  are convenient, based on our
 experience with other operating systems.  In particular,  we plan  to have
 longer filenames, file version numbers, a crashproof file system, filename
 completion  perhaps,  terminal-independent  display  support,  and perhaps
 eventually a  Lisp-based window system through which several Lisp programs
 and ordinary Unix programs can share a screen.   Both  C and  Lisp will be
 available as  system programming  languages.  We will try to support UUCP,
 MIT Chaosnet, and Internet protocols for communication.

       GNU is  aimed initially  at machines  in the  68000/16000 class with
 virtual memory,  because they  are the easiest machines to make it run on.
 The extra effort to make it  run  on  smaller  machines  will  be  left to
 someone who wants to use it on them.

       To avoid  horrible confusion,  please pronounce  the `G' in the word
 `GNU' when it is the name of this project.

 Who Am I?

       I am Richard Stallman, inventor of the original, much-imitated EMACS
 editor, formerly at the Artificial Intelligence Lab at MIT.  I have worked
 extensively on compilers, editors,  debuggers,  command  interpreters, the
 Incompatible Timesharing  System and the Lisp Machine operating system.  I
 pioneered terminal-independent display support in ITS.  Since  then I have
 implemented one  crashproof file  system and  two window  systems for Lisp
 machines, and designed a third window  system now  being implemented; this
 one will be ported to many systems including use in GNU.

 [Historical note:  The window system project was not completed; GNU now
  plans to use the X/Windows system.]

                           Why I Must Write GNU..

       I consider  that the golden rule requires that if I like a program I
 must share it with other people  who like  it.   Software sellers  want to
 divide the  users and  conquer them,  making each  user agree not to share
 with others.  I refuse to break solidarity with other users in this way. I
 cannot in  good conscience  sign a  nondisclosure agreement  or a software
 license agreement.  For years I worked within  the Artificial Intelligence
 Lab to  resist such  tendencies and  other inhospitalities, but eventually
 they had gone too far:  I could  not remain  in an  institution where such
 things are done for me against my will.

       So that  I can  continue to  use computers  without dishonor, I have
 decided to put together a sufficient body of free software so that  I will
 be  able  to  get  along  without  any  software that is not free.  I have
 resigned from the AI Lab to deny MIT any legal  excuse to  prevent me from
 giving GNU away.

                  Why GNU Will Be Compatible with Unix..

       Unix is  not my  ideal system, but it is not too bad.  The essential
 features of Unix seem to be good ones, and I think I can fill in what Unix
 lacks without  spoiling them.   And a system compatible with Unix would be
 convenient for many other people to adopt.

                        How GNU Will Be Available..

       GNU is  not in  the public  domain.   Everyone will  be permitted to
 modify  and  redistribute  GNU,  but  no  distributor  will  be allowed to
 restrict  its  further  redistribution.    That  is  to  say,  proprietary
 modifications will  not be allowed.  I want to make sure that all versions
 of GNU remain free.

                 Why Many Other Programmers Want to Help..

       I have found many other programmers  who are  excited about  GNU and
 want to help.

       Many programmers  are unhappy  about the commercialization of system
 software.  It may enable them to make more money, but it  requires them to
 feel in  conflict with  other programmers  in general  rather than feel as
 comrades.  The fundamental act  of  friendship  among  programmers  is the
 sharing of programs; marketing arrangements now typically used essentially
 forbid programmers to treat others as friends.  The purchaser  of software
 must choose between friendship and obeying the law. Naturally, many decide
 that friendship is more important.  But those who believe in law  often do
 not feel  at ease  with either choice.  They become cynical and think that
 programming is just a way of making money.

       By working on and using GNU rather than proprietary programs, we can
 be hospitable to everyone and obey the law.  In addition, GNU serves as an
 example to inspire and a banner  to rally  others to  join us  in sharing.
 This  can  give  us  a  feeling  of  harmony which is impossible if we use
 software that is not free.  For about half the programmers I talk to, this
 is an important happiness that money cannot replace.

                          How You Can Contribute..

       I  am  asking  computer  manufacturers for donations of machines and
 money.  I'm asking individuals for donations of programs and work.

       One consequence you can expect if  you donate  machines is  that GNU
 will run on them at an early date.  The machines should be complete, ready
 to use systems, approved for use in a residential area, and not in need of
 sophisticated cooling or power.

      I have found very many programmers eager to contribute part-time work
 for GNU.  For most projects, such part-time distributed work would be very
 hard  to  coordinate;  the  independently-written  parts  would  not  work
 together.  But for the particular task of replacing Unix,  this problem is
 absent.   A complete  Unix system  contains hundreds  of utility programs,
 each of which is documented separately.  Most interface specifications are
 fixed by  Unix compatibility.   If each contributor can write a compatible
 replacement for a single Unix utility, and make it work  properly in place
 of the  original on  a Unix  system, then  these utilities will work right
 when put together.  Even allowing  for Murphy  to create  a few unexpected
 problems, assembling these components will be a feasible task. (The kernel
 will require closer communication and will be worked on by  a small, tight

       If I get donations of money, I may be able to hire a few people full
 or part time.  The salary won't be high by programmers' standards, but I'm
 looking for  people for  whom building community spirit is as important as
 making money.  I view this as a way of enabling dedicated people to devote
 their full  energies to  working on GNU by sparing them the need to make a
 living in another way.

                    Why All Computer Users Will Benefit..

       Once GNU is written,  everyone will  be able  to obtain  good system
 software free, just like air.

       This means  much more  than just saving everyone the price of a Unix
 license.  It means  that much  wasteful duplication  of system programming
 effort will  be avoided.   This  effort can  go instead into advancing the
 state of the art.

       Complete system sources will be available to everyone.  As a result,
 a user  who needs  changes in  the system will always be free to make them
 himself, or hire any available programmer or company to make them for him.
 Users will  no longer  be at  the mercy of one programmer or company which
 owns the sources and is in sole position to make changes.

       Schools will be able to provide a much  more educational environment
 by encouraging all students to study and improve the system code.Harvard's
 computer lab used to have the policy that no program could be installed on
 the system  if its  sources were  not on  public display, and upheld it by
 actually refusing to install certain programs.  I  was very  much inspired
 by this.

       Finally, the  overhead of  considering who  owns the system software
 and what one is or is not entitled to do with it will be lifted.

       Arrangements to make  people  pay  for  using  a  program, including
 licensing of copies, always incur a tremendous cost to society through the
 cumbersome mechanisms  necessary to  figure out  how much  (that is, which
 programs)  a  person  must  pay  for.    And only a police state can force
 everyone to obey them.    Consider  a  space  station  where  air  must be
 manufactured at  great cost:   charging each breather per liter of air may
 be fair, but wearing the  metered  gas  mask  all  day  and  all  night is
 intolerable even  if everyone  can afford to pay the air bill.  And the TV
 cameras everywhere to see if you  ever take  the mask  off are outrageous.
 It's better to support the air plant with a head tax and chuck the masks.

       Copying all  or parts  of a program is as natural to a programmer as
 breathing, and as productive.  It ought to be as free.

              Some Easily Rebutted Objections to GNU's Goals..

          "Nobody will use it if it is free, because that  means they can't
           rely on any support."

          "You  have  to  charge  for  the program to pay for providing the

       If people would rather pay for  GNU plus  service than  get GNU free
 without  service,  a  company  to  provide just service to people who have
 obtained GNU free ought to be profitable.

       We must distinguish between support in the form  of real programming
 work and  mere hand-holding.  The former  is something  one cannot rely on
 from a software vendor.  If your problem is not  shared by  enough people,
 the vendor will tell you to get lost.

       If your  business needs  to be able to rely on support, the only way
 is to have all the necessary  sources and  tools.   Then you  can hire any
 available person  to fix  your problem;  you are  not at  the mercy of any
 individual. With Unix, the price of sources puts this out of consideration
 for most  businesses.   With GNU  this will be easy.  It is still possible
 for there to be no available competent person, but this  problem cannot be
 blamed  on  distribution  arrangements.  GNU  does  not  eliminate all the
 world's problems, only some of them.

       Meanwhile,  the  users  who   know  nothing   about  computers  need
 hand-holding: doing  things for them which they could easily do themselves
 but don't know how.   Such  services could  be provided  by companies that
 sell just hand-holding and repair service.  If it is true that users would
 rather spend money and get a  product  with  service,  they  will  also be
 willing  to  buy  the  service  having  got the product free.  The service
 companies will compete in quality and price; users will not be tied to any
 particular one.   Meanwhile, those of us who don't need the service should
 be able to use the program without paying for the service.

          "You cannot reach many people without  advertising, and  you must
           charge for the program to support that."

          "It's no use advertising a program people can get free."

       There are various forms of free or inexpensive publicity that can be
 used to inform numbers of computer users about something like GNU.  But it
 may be  true that one can reach more microcomputer users with advertising.
 If this is really so, a business which  advertises the  service of copying
 and mailing  GNU for  a fee  ought to  be successful enough to pay for its
 advertising and more.  This way,  only  the  users  who  benefit  from the
 advertising pay for it.

       On the  other hand,  if many  people get GNU from their friends, and
 such companies don't succeed, this  will  show  that  advertising  was not
 really necessary  to spread  GNU.   Why is  it that  free market advocates
 don't want to let the free market decide this?

          "My company needs a proprietary operating system to get a 
 competitive edge."

       GNU  will  remove  operating  system  software  from  the  realm  of
 competition.    You  will  not  be  able  to get an edge in this area, but
 neither will your competitors be able to get  an edge  over you.   You and
 they will  compete in other areas, while benefitting mutually in this one.
 If your business is selling an  operating system,  you will  not like GNU,
 but that's tough on you.  If your business is something else, GNU can save
 you from  being pushed  into the  expensive business  of selling operating
 systems.  I would like to see GNU development supported by gifts from many
 manufacturers and users, reducing the cost to each.

          "Don't programmers deserve a reward for their creativity?"

      If anything deserves a reward, it is social contribution.  Creativity
 can be a social contribution, but only in so far as society is free to use
 the results. If programmers deserve to be rewarded for creating innovative
 programs, by  the same  token they deserve to be punished if they restrict
 the use of these programs.

          "Shouldn't a programmer be able  to  ask  for  a  reward  for his

       There  is  nothing  wrong  with  wanting pay for work, or seeking to
 maximize one's income,  as  long  as  one  does  not  use  means  that are
 destructive.   But the  means customary in the field of software today are
 based on destruction.    Extracting  money  from  users  of  a  program by
 restricting their use of it is destructive because the restrictions reduce
 the amount and the ways that the program  can be  used.   This reduces the
 amount of  wealth that humanity derives from the program.  When there is a
 deliberate choice to restrict,  the  harmful  consequences  are deliberate

       The reason  a good  citizen does  not use  such destructive means to
 become wealthier is that, if everyone did so,  we would  all become poorer
 from the  mutual destructiveness.   This is Kantian ethics; or, the Golden
 Rule.  Since I do not like the consequences that result if everyone hoards
 information,  I  am  required  to  consider  it  wrong  for  one to do so.
 Specifically, the desire to be  rewarded  for  one's  creativity  does not
 justify depriving the world in general of all or part of that creativity.

          "Won't programmers starve?"

       I could answer that nobody is forced to be a programmer.  Most of us
 cannot manage to get any money  for  standing  on  the  street  and making
 faces.  But we are not, as a result, condemned to spend our lives standing
 on the street making faces, and starving.  We do something else.

       But that  is the  wrong answer  because it  accepts the questioner's
 implicit  assumption:  that  without  ownership  of  software, programmers
 cannot possibly be paid a cent.  Supposedly it is all or nothing.

       The real reason programmers will not starve is that it will still be
 possible for  them to  get paid  for programming; just not paid as much as

     Restricting copying is not the only basis for business in software. It
 is the  most common basis because it brings in the most money.  If it were
 prohibited, or rejected by the customer,  software business  would move to
 other bases  of organization  which are  now used  less often.   There are
 always numerous ways to organize any kind of business.

       Probably programming will not be as lucrative on the new basis as it
 is  now.    But  that  is  not  an argument against the change.  It is not
 considered an injustice that sales clerks make the salaries that  they now
 do.   If programmers made the same, that would not be an injustice either.
 (In practice they would still make considerably more than that.)

          "Don't people  have a  right to  control how  their creativity is

       "Control  over  the  use  of one's ideas" really constitutes control
 over other people's lives; and it is usually used to make their lives more

       People who  have studied  the issue  of intellectual property rights
 carefully (such as lawyers)  say  that  there  is  no  intrinsic  right to
 intellectual property.  The kinds of supposed intellectual property rights
 that  the  government  recognizes  were  created   by  specific   acts  of
 legislation for specific purposes.

      For example, the patent system was established to encourage inventors
 to disclose  the details  of their  inventions.   Its purpose  was to help
 society rather  than to  help inventors.  At the time, the life span of 17
 years for a patent  was short  compared with  the rate  of advance  of the
 state of  the art.   Since  patents are an issue only among manufacturers,
 for whom the cost  and effort  of a  license agreement  are small compared
 with setting  up production,  the patents often do not do much harm.  They
 do not obstruct most individuals who use patented products.

       The idea of copyright did not exist in  ancient times,  when authors
 frequently copied  other authors  at length in works of non-fiction.  This
 practice was useful, and is the only way many authors' works have survived
 even in  part.  The copyright system weated expressly for the purpose
 of encouraging authorship. In the domain  for  which  it  was  invented --
 books, which  could be  copied economically  only on a printing press-- it
 did little harm, and did not obstruct most of the individuals who read the

      All intellectual property rights are just licenses granted by society
 because it was thought, rightly or wrongly, that society as  a whole would
 benefit by granting them. But in any particular situation, we have to ask:
 Are we really better off granting such license?  What  kind of  act are we
 licensing a person to do?

       The case  of programs  today is  very different from that of books a
 hundred years ago.  The fact  that the  easiest way  to copy  a program is
 from one neighbor to another, the fact that a program has both source code
 and object code which are distinct, and the  fact that  a program  is used
 rather than  read and  enjoyed, combine  to create  a situation in which a
 person who enforces  a  copyright  is  harming  society  as  a  whole both
 materially and  spiritually; in which a person should not do so regardless
 of whether the law enables him to.

          "Competition makes things get done better."

       The paradigm of competition is a race: by  rewarding the  winner, we
 encourage everyone  to run faster.  When capitalism really works this way,
 it does a good  job; but  its defenders  are wrong  in assuming  it always
 works  this  way.    If  the  runners forget why the reward is offered and
 become intent on winning, no matter how, they may find  other strategies -
 such as,  attacking other  runners.  If the runners get into a fist fight,
 they will all finish late.

       Proprietary and secret software is the  moral equivalent  of runners
 in a  fist fight.  Sad to say, the only referee we've got does not seem to
 object to fights; he just regulates  them ("For  every ten  yards you run,
 you  are  allowed  one  kick.").    He  really ought to break them up, and
 penalize runners for even trying to fight.

          "Won't everyone stop programming without a monetary incentive?"

       Actually, many  people  will  program  with  absolutely  no monetary
 incentive.   Programming has  an irresistible fascination for some people,
 usually the  people  who  are  best  at  it.    There  is  no  shortage of
 professional musicians  who keep  at it  even though  they have no hope of
 making a living that way. But really this question, though commonly asked,
 is  not  appropriate  to  the  situation.    Pay  for programmers will not
 disappear, only become less. So the right question is, will anyone program
 with a reduced monetary incentive?  My experience shows that they will.

       For more than ten years, many of the world's best programmers worked
 at the Artificial Intelligence Lab for far less money than they could have
 had anywhere  else.  They got many kinds of non-monetary rewards: fame and
 appreciation, for example.   And  creativity  is  also  fun,  a  reward in
 itself.   Then most  of them  left when  offered a  chance to  do the same
 interesting work for a lot of money.

       What the facts show is that  people will  program for  reasons other
 than riches;  but if  given a  chance to make a lot of money as well, they
 will come to expect and demand it.  Low-paying organizations  do poorly in
 competition with high-paying ones, but they do not have to do badly if the
 high-paying ones are banned.

          "We need  the programmers  desperately.   If they  demand that we
           stop helping our neighbors, we have to obey."

       You're never so desperate that you have to obey this sort of demand.
 Remember: millions for defense, but not a cent for tribute!

          "Programmers need to make a living somehow."

       In the short run, this is true.  However, there  are plenty  of ways
 that programmers  could make  a living  without selling the right to use a
 program.  This way is customary  now  because  it  brings  programmers and
 businessmen  the  most  money,  not  because  it is the only way to make a
 living.  It is easy to find other ways if you want to find them.  Here are
 a number of examples.

     - A  manufacturer introducing  a new computer will pay for the porting
       of operating systems onto the new hardware.

     - The sale of  teaching, hand-holding  and maintenance  services could
       also employ programmers.

     - People  with new ideas could distribute programs as freeware, asking
       for donations from satisfied users, or selling hand-holding        
       services.  I have met people who are already working this way      

     - Users with related needs can form users'  groups, and  pay dues.   A
       group would  contract with  programming companies  to write programs
       that the group's members would like to use.

        All sorts of development can be funded with a Software Tax:

       Suppose everyone who buys  a computer  has to  pay x  percent of the
 price as  a software tax.  The government gives this to an agency like the
 NSF (the National Science Foundation) to spend on software development.

       But if the computer buyer makes  a donation  to software development
 himself, he  can take  a credit  against the  tax.   He can  donate to the
 project of his own  choosing--often, chosen  because he  hopes to  use the
 results when  it is done.  He can take a credit for any amount of donation
 up to the total tax he had to pay.

       The total tax rate could be decided by a vote  of the  payers of the
 tax, weighted according to the amount they will be taxed on.

  The consequences:
  * the computer-using community supports software development.
  * this community decides what level of support is needed.
  * users who care which projects their share is spent on
    can choose this for themselves.

       In the  long run,  making programs  free is  a step toward the post-
 carcity world, where nobody will have  to work  very hard  just to  make a
 living.   People will  be free to devote themselves to activities that are
 fun, such as programming, after spending the necessary ten hours a week on
 required tasks  such as  legislation, family  counseling, robot repair and
 asteroid prospecting.  There will be no need to be  able to  make a living
 from programming.

       We have  already greatly  reduced the  amoubut only a little of this has
 translated  itself  into  leisure  for  workers because much nonproductive
 activity is required to accompany productive activity.  The main causes of
 this are  bureaucracy and  isometric struggles  against competition.  Free
 software  will  greatly  reduce  these  drains  in  the  area  of software
 production.  We must do this, in order for technical gains in productivity
 to translate into less work for us.

                   Copyright = 1985 Richard M. Stallman

    Permission is granted to anyone to make or distribute verbatim copies
    of this document as received, in any medium, provided that the
    copyright notice and permission notice are preserved, and that the
    distributor grants the recipient permission for further redistribution
    as permitted by this notice.  Modified versions may not be made.


       The GNU Project is funded primarily by grants from companies such as
 Hewlett Packard,  the Open Software Foundation, and NeXT Inc.  The ongoing
 results of this endeavor, such as the GNU  C Compiler  and GNU  Emacs, are
 arguably some of the best software programs available in the industry.  It
 seems that while the ideals of the Free Software Foundation  may not truly
 be  implementable   in  today's  increasingly  business-oriented  computer
 industry.  However, the continuing support of Richard  Stallman's work, as
 well as the beliefs exemplified by the GNU Project, hold many implications
 about the attitudes and practices which have formed  the present  state of
 the computer industry....

 But ponder, if you will, this question:

 1)   Are there any aspects of the Free Software Foundation's beliefs which
     are feasible enough to be widely  implemented throughout  the computer




       In its  first such  measure since  1985, Apple has laid off over 400
 employees in several Apple divisions, including Customer Service, Finance,
 and Apple  USA Marketing  and Distribution.   These employees will receive
 severance pay, and the services of  a Transition  Resource Center  to help
 with job  counseling.   Interestingly enough,  Apple is  going to continue
 hiring efforts  for Apple's  R&D and  USA Sales  Divisions, as  well as in
 their  European  and  Asian  operations.    Also, it seems that some Apple
 employees are  upset over  the monetary  size of  special "bonus" packages
 being given to current and departing Apple exec is selling NeXT Computers in
 England.  Per the terms of NeXT Inc.'s  agreement with  Businessland, they
 will have  exclusive sales rights for the NeXT Computer in Britain.  Also,
 Dan'l Lewin, NeXT's former Chief  Marketing  Officer,  recently  left NeXT
 Inc. to  handle the  marketing efforts of Go Corporation, another upcoming
 computer company startup....

 - Washington, DC                          *****  OZONE LAYER SAVED?  *****

       The Environmental Protection Agency has recently approved a compound
 which  can  replace  the  use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC's) in chemicals.
 While such chemicals are now  used  heavily  for  industrial  purposes (in
 freon  and  in  cooling  computers,  for example), they also cause serious
 damage to the Earth's Ozone layer.   Called  Genesolv 2010,  this chemical
 (made of  HCFC's, or  hydrochlorofluorocarbons) has been determined to not
 cause damage to the ozone  layer.    The  EPA  is  now  continuing further
 testing, in order to verify these findings....


       Matsushita,  parent  company  of  Mitsubishi, has developed a 64-bit
 version of Sun's SPARC (Scalable Processor ARChitecture) RISC  chip, which
 is capable  of running  at up to 80 MIPS.  Designed by Solbourne Computer,
 who plans to make clones of Sun's SPARCStation  line using  the chip, this
 version of the SPARC chip uses 1 million transistors in combining a 32-bit
 CPU, a Floating Point chip, and a 64-bit bus controller on one chip. Given
 that Sun  originally licensed out the SPARC chip to just generate industry
 support for it, and the possibility of a Sun clone on the horizon....

 Errata:  CPU Report Issue 54 stated that Frank Loren  was Apple's  new COO
 =======  (Chief Operating Officer).  Michael Spindler is actually their
          COO, while Alan Z. Loren, Apple's former sales and marketing
          head, recently resigned from Apple.  Also, Jean Louis Gassee has
          expressed his intentions to soon resign from Apple....


 > ICD LEADS the WAY! CPU/STR InfoFile?       The ICD Advantage

                            :The ICD Advantage:

      Totally NEW AND UNIQUE designs to answer all your SCSI needs.  

     Since 1984,  ICD has  been providing  Atari owners with innovative and
 superior peripherals and enhancements  for  their  computing  needs.   ICD
 products have  always added value and performance to computer systems.  In
 1987 ICD introduced their SCSI ST Host Adapter, defining a  new market for
 third party hard drives and setting the standard for DMA daisy chaining.  

     ICD's  progressive  vision  continues  in  1990.    This year they are

     This  introduction  includes  three  totally  new SCSI designs for the
 Atari ST market which are available  now.    ICD  has  also  developed new
 versions of our ST Host Adapter software.  New features have been added in
 response to your needs.  What  this means  to you,  the Atari  ST owner is
 this; the ICD Advantage allows you to take your SCSI Hard Drive investment
 and use it on virtually any computer in use today.  And  the ICD tradition
 will keep your investment working for you in the future.

     ICD Advantage  ST Software combined with any of their ST host adapters
 is already the quickest available  for  the  ST  computer.    With  an ICD
 system, some  hard drive  operations are  actually three times faster than
 the competition!  Advantage ST software now supports  up to  64 hard drive
 partitions per  drive and  128 total  partitions per system.  Volume names
 are allowed on all  partitions and  can be  passed through  to the desktop
 icons.    Partition  swapping  through  the new ICD DESKTOP.ACC allows any
 partition to become active in any of the 14 possible desktop icons.  

     Partition sizes of up to half a gigabyte  are possible  under TOS 1.4.
 256  Megabyte  partitions  are  supported  under  older TOS versions.  ICD
 Advantage ST Software does require at least one ICD ST Host Adapter in the
 system.    The  full  ANSI  SCSI  command  set  is  supported with our new
 Advantage SCSI Host Adapters.  Advantage ST Software is included  with all
 ICD Advantage  Host Adapter kits and is available as a $10 upgrade for our
 ICD ST Host Adapter (STHA) owners.  It can also be downloaded  from GEnie,
 CompuServe, or the ICD BBS.

                        The BEST is now even BETTER

 ICD Advantage Micro ST SCSI Host Adapter - At 1.3 by 2.7 inches, it is the
 smallest SCSI host adapter commercially available.  The Advantage Micro ST
 is a  zero footprint  design which  makes it  the perfect host adapter for
 internal MEGA  needs.  The Advantage Micro ST plugs  directly into  the 50
 pin connector  of an  embedded SCSI  drive and powers itself from the SCSI
 bus.  The adjustable power-up delay circuit provides up to  two minutes of
 delay before  allowing your Mega computer to boot.  The Advantage Micro ST
 kit includes a sturdy  mounting  bracket  for  a  3  1/2  inch  hard drive
 mechanism, internal DMA cable, drive power cable, our famous software, and
 excellent manual: everything you need to install a  3 1/2  inch hard drive
 inside you MEGA computer.  

 ICD Advantage  ST SCSI  Host Adapter  -   Less than  half the  size of our
 original  ST Host Adapter, the Advantage ST has all of its features except
 the  clock.    Added  features  include  full  SCSI  command  set,  parity
 generation, dual  mode DMA  daisy chaining,  and 48  ma drivers.   The ICD
 Advantage  ST  includes  our  unique  new  dual  mode  DMA  daisy chaining
 providing both  the drivers  for standard  pass-through operation invented
 by  ICD  and  full  compatibility  with  devices  that  use parallel daisy
 chaining.  The  Advantage  ST  kit  includes  the  ICD  Advantage  ST Host
 Adapter,  3  foot  molded  DMA  cable,  DC  power adapter cable, Advantage
 Software, and manual.

 ICD Advantage Plus ST SCSI Host  Adapter -  With all  the features  of the
 Advantage ST  plus a  real-time clock,  this board is the same size as the
 previous ST Host Adapter  and it  can easily  replace the  original ICD ST
 Host Adapter  in existing applications.  (For replacements: Please specify
 side or end mounting of the DMA connectors.)   The  Advantage Plus  ST kit
 includes an  ICD Advantage  Plus ST Host Adapter, 3 foot molded DMA cable,
 DC power adapter cable, powerful software, and excellent manual.

     ICD Advantage Micro ST SCSI Host Adapter   $109.95 (Internal Mega Kit)
     ICD Advantage ST SCSI Host Adapter         $119.95   
     ICD Advantage Plus ST SCSI Host Adapter    $135.95

 ICD ST Host Adapter Comparison and Specifications

 Features              Micro           Advantage      Advantage+    Old ICD

 SCSI Commands*        All            All          All          Grp 0 only
 Driver Power          24 ma          48 ma        48 ma        24 ma
 Parity Generation     No             Yes          Yes          No
 Real Time Clock       No             No           Yes          Yes
 Usable Device IDs     0-3            0-5,7        0-5,7        0-5,7
 DMA Daisy Chaining**  Parallel       Dual         Dual      Pass-Through
 ICs Used              5              8            11           14
 Total Parts Used      17             31           44           60
 Autobooting from HD   Yes            Yes          Yes          Yes
 Atari Compatible      Yes***         Yes          Yes          Yes
 AHDI 3.xx Compatible  Yes            Yes          Yes          Yes
 PCB Dimensions (in)  1.3 x 2.7      2.5 x 3.95   3.93 x 6.3   3.93 x 6.3

 US Retail Price         $109.95        $119.95      $135.95      $135.95

 *   SCSI Commands conforming to the ANSI X3.131-1986 specification as well
     as the preliminary SCSI-2  specification except  for arbitration which
     is not supported on any models.

 **   Parallel means  that all  DMA lines  are in common with no drivers in
     between.  Pass-Through means  that there  are line  drivers in between
     each DMA  port.  A pass-through type DMA device will not work when its
     IN (computer) port is plugged into  a parallel  device.   (That is why
     the standard  SLM804 laser  printer cannot  be plugged directly into a
     Mega DMA port with internal hard drive.)  ICD's unique Dual Mode ports
     function when  plugged into  either port type and allow either type to
     be plugged into the OUT (expansion) port.  The noise  immunity benefit
     of using line drivers is still retained.

 *** The  DMA daisy  chaining capabilities of the Micro Series Host Adapter
     is not Atari compatible except with  the SH204.   Otherwise,  you must
     have  a  'Dual'  mode  device  in  between the Mega Hard Disk port and
     another pass-through device.

                 Advantage ST? is a trademark of ICD, Inc.



                                        A Silent Revolution

 by Tim Holt
 President, ST Club of El Paso

     As I write this article, I really do not know how well the Atari 
 Revolution is doing. I hope it is doing  well. I  have even  got my little
 "Join the  Revolution"irst of all, writing to the Tramiels is sorta like trying to move the
 proverbial mountain.  If you haven't guessed by now that the Gang of Three
 doesn't give  a lot  of thought  to us  U.S. users,  then you haven't been
 paying attention.  Smell the coffee Bubba, they are in it to  make a buck.
 What the U.S provides is pocket change.

     Secondly, the  Revolution appears  to many to be like trying to stop a
 hemorrhage with a band aid.   It is  a nice  try, but  it doesn't  do much
 good. The  damage has  already been done, and calling 20/20  won't do much
 good simply because the folks in Sunnyvale(what a  misnamed  place if ever
 there was one!) do give a hoot what users think. (See reason #1)
     Thirdly  (Is  that  a  word?),  the  main  focus  of the Revolution is
 terribly misdirected.  Roseanne  Barr doesn't  give a  flying flip  if her
 family wins  a computer.  Have you seen that show?  The computer would end
 up as a door stop, or worse yet,  Roseanne  might  sit  on  it.    (In the
 process, a palmtop ST would be born.) 

     The Revolution needs to go to only one place: WHERE THE MONEY IS. That
 is why I  wrote this short essay.  The Atari Revolution  will only succeed
 when we  make some  ECONOMIC   impact, somewhere.   All the letters in the
 world won't do as much good as the sight of money lost.   Think  about it.
 If you  were a businessman, what would make you think more:  A few hundred
 letters from a bunch of computer fanatics (and that is what we  are folks,
 don't try  to deny  it), or  the loss  of a few thousand dollars in sales?
 Well, I think the latter. 

     May I humbly offer the following as a CO-Revolutionary proposal:   Let
 us target  some software company.  (Just for no other reason than I have a
 current catalog,  I  will  use  Broderbund  as  an  example,  although ANY
 software company  will do.)   I know that they make a nifty program called
 "If it moves, Shoot it!".  I also know that, from the catalog, it  only is
 made for  the IBM  and Amiga line of computers.  What if three thousand of
 us sent Broderbund checks made out, all for $29.95, for  this product, BUT
 ONLY IF IT WERE FOR THE ATARI ST? This would have several effects:  

 1.   The company would see that there is a market that they have missed.  
 2.  If the company had any brains, they would see that they were  losing a
     of a  lot of  money.   In this  case, close to ten thousand dollars in
     lost sales. (The more checks sent, the more  money that  they would be

 3.   The company  would consider  the ST community the next time they came
     out with a new product.

 4.  They would actually LOSE MONEY because  they would  have to  spend man
     hours refunding our checks, since they did not have the item we wished
     to order.  And that, my friends, is  where this  revolution would take
     off.    If  we  could  benignly  cause companies to lose money, simply
     because they didn't carry ST software,  hit them  in the  pocket book,
     then we would make our mark.  Let me give you another example:  

     Suppose  Company  X  sold  a  grammar  checker  for  it's popular word
 processor for the IBM, but not for the  ST.   Again, suppose  this grammar
 checker sold  for $300.   If  this company  received 5000 checks, all made
 out for $300, but ONLY FOR  THE ST  VERSION of  the program,  this company
 would  see  rather  quickly  that  they  just  lost 1.5 million dollars in
 sales.  PLUS, they had to  refund the  checks, using  office personnel, so
 in effect,  they lost  EVEN MORE than the 1.5 million.  I think they would
 get the picture rather QUICKLY.   

     What would this cost the ST user?   Just the  cost of  a stamp,  and a
 little  letter  writing.    You  would  not  lose  the money on the check,
 because the company did not have the item you ordered.   They  would  have
 to refund your money, so you lose NOTHING.   

     What do  you get out of the deal?  Well, ever see a program on IBM  or
 MAC or Amiga that really looked nice, only to find out it was   never made
 for the  ST?   If enough  checks are  written, I'd be willing to bet money
 that you would see that program finally written for the ST.   

     The time  has come  for us  to stop  goofing around,  and stop looking
 like a  bunch of children who are unhappy because daddy never  comes home.
 To hell with those that won't pay attention to us.  To hell with  Atari if
 they ignore  us.   They sold  the computer,  that is all they wanted to do
 anyhow.  The time has come to hit the software   companies  where it hurts
 the most..  in the  pocket book.   Show them that we are out here, we have
 money, and we are  ready to  spend it.   Because  in this  big a beautiful
 country of  ours, let's  face it:   When  push comes to shove, it is MONEY
 that TALKS.  Let's show them  that we have money, we want to spend it, but
 ONLY on  ST items.   Then  we will be heard, and then we will have won the
 Atari Revolution!

 To join the ST Club of El Paso, write to us at:

                            ST                        EL Paso, Texas  79934

 We hope you enjoyed this article. Please check  out our  other articles on
 line on GEnie, or in the Atari Interface Magazine, the official newsletter
 of the St  Club.

 Editor Note;
     Folks, this "POSITIVE ACTION" sounds like it may  work and  work well!
 I can just a National Sales Manager in any of these companies watching all
 t > VECTOR INTERCEPTS CPU/STR InfoFile?      Tried and true techniques

    A Programmer's Eleven Commandments for Coexistent Vector Stealing 
     Tried and true techniques used by the CodeHeads for successfully 
     intercepting vectors in the midst of numerous ST vector thieves. 
           Copyright 1990 John Eidsvoog and Charles F. Johnson 
                           (CodeHead Software) 
          Last revised: Wednesday, February 14, 1990  5:47:44 pm 
     We  have  prepared  this  document  in  the  interest of attaining and
 furthering compatibility between  resident  programs  and  accessories for
 the  Atari  ST.    Since  the  TOS  operating system has no provisions for
 managing its  interrupt  and  trap  vectors,  ST  developers  who  need to
 intercept these  vectors are forced to use the "trial and error" system to
 determine what works. 
     This is a very  dangerous  situation.    More  and  more  programs are
 appearing which enhance the ST's GEM operating system by patching into the
 vectors which handle system calls.  Many of these programs  work perfectly
 as long  as no  other resident  programs are  used, or  as long as certain
 combinations of programs are used.  But when  these programs  are released
 into the "real world," the conflicts quickly start showing up. 
 At CodeHead  Software we've encountered more than our share of these types
 of problems, since almost all of our commercial products intercept  one or
 more of  the ST's  system vector(s).   From  this boiling witches' brew of
 potential pitfalls, we've managed to distill  some pragmatic  methods that
 can alleviate most, if not all of the conflicts. 
     If you  follow these guidelines when programming Atari ST applications
 which require the interception of system  vectors, you  will be cwith _most_  of the  programs currently  in use.   At the very least, your
 code will be compatible with all  of the  CodeHead Software  products.  If
 any  program  has  general  compatibility  problems  with  other  resident
 programs or accessories, it's  very likely  that the  offending program is
 breaking one of the following Eleven Commandments: 
 -------- ant to
 terminate your routine with an RTE.   Be  aware that  if you  do this, any
 program which  was previously installed in that vector will not "see" this
 call come through.)  The "fall through" can be accomplished by storing the
 previous vector  address two  bytes past  a JMP instruction; this approach
 solves any possible problems with pushing the return address on  the stack
 (see  Commandment  V  below),  or  destroying an address register to do an
 indirect JMP.  
 There are some cases  where it  doesn't make  sense to  fall through  to a
 previous  routine,  such  as  when  you  replace the Alt-Help vector which
 performs a screen dump.   Even  here, however,  it's a  good idea  to make
 allowances  for  other  programs  which  may  use  the Alt-Help vector for
 purposes other  than  a  screen  dump...such  as  the  Templemon  and AMON
 debuggers.    AMON  avoids  conflicts  with other programs in the Alt-Help
 vector by requiring the user to press the  left shift  key in  addition to
 Alternate and Help. 
 Another  special  case  where  falling  through makes no sense is the ST's
 vertical blank queue list,  which allows  you to  install a  routine to be
 executed  as  a  subroutine  from  the  main  system VBI.  There are eight
 entries in the default queue  list,  and  the  correct  way  to  install a
 routine in  one is  to search the list for a zero longword.  When your VBI
 queue routine is finished, it may remove itself  by clearing  its entry in
 the list.   (This  is why  it makes no sense to fall through to a previous
 queue entry  -- that  entry should  have been  zero when  you grabbed it.)
 Even this mechanism is subject to abuse, however; an unfortunate number of
 programs simply stuff an address into  one  of  the  queue  slots, without
 checking first  to see  if that  slot has  been taken.  (A good example of
 this kind of vector abuse is the first version of STARTGEM.PRG.) 

 Remember: when using the vertical  blank  queue  list,  always  search the
 list for a zero entry in which to install your routine.  
 With more and more programs appearing that replace entire operating system
 functions, compatibility is going  to become  even more  problematic.  For
 example, clashes  will occur  because Program  A needs  to "see" a certain
 call being made, but Program B is intercepting for which  it's watching.   Keep
 this in mind when you're writing code intended to replace an entire system
 call;  and  be  sure  to  test  your  code  with  as  many  other resident
 vector-grabbers as possible. 
 Never replace  a vector  after grabbing  it, unless you're in a controlled
 situation where there is  no chance  that another  prog your code.  Here's an example of what
 can go haywire if you do replace a vector at the wrong time: 
 An early public domain ST program  had  a  feature  to  select DESKTOP.INF
 files for  different resolutions.   The program grabbed the trap #1 vector
 (GEMDOS) and then used the Ptermres() call to make itself resident.  
 Then, as a resident program, it  monitored all  GEMDOS calls,  l.INF  depending  on  the  current
 resolution.  Then it made the big mistake -- to remove itself, our example
 program took  the address  that it  originally found in the trap #1 vector
 (when it first ran) and stored it back into the vector.  
 Why is this such a big mistake?  Because other programs that can run AFTER
 our example  program may  also need  to grab  the trap #1 vector.  If this
 happens, the next program to install itself in trap #1 will be  CUT OUT of
 the chain  of fall-throughs  when our example program replaces the vector.
 If you're lucky, the only ill effect will be that  one of  your TSR's will
 suddenly stop  working.  If you're unlucky, the system will crash or hang.
 (It all depends on  what the  program that  got cut  out of  the chain was
 doing with that vector.) 
 Oh, and  by the way, our unnamed example program has since been updated to
 fix this thorny problem.  The fix was simple; the  program now  remains in
 the  trap  #1  vector  after  replacing the system's DESKTOP.INF filename;
 after doing its job,  the  code  does  nothing  but  fall  through  to the
 previous vector.  
 If you  are a  resident program  and you want to remove yourself, do it by
 setting a flag to bypass your code and  fall through  (see Commandment I.)
 Remember that  some other  program may  run after  yours and grab the same
 vector; in this case, the other  program will  be falling  through to your
 code.   If you  remove yourself  by replacing the original vector address,
 you'll also be removing everything else that ran after you. 
 Don't use a "magic cookie" (the infamous Diablo  emulator mistake).   That
 is, if  you are  trying to  find another program (or yourself), don't look
 for a "magic" word near the address in the vector that the program steals.
 This technique  will fail  as soon  as some  other program  grabs the same
 vector; and this is exactly how the Diablo emulator (for  the SLM804 laser
 printer) breaks.   The  Diablo emulator consists of two separate programs,
 one that goes  in  an  AUTO  folder  (the  emulator  code  itself),  and a
 configuration program that installs as a desk accessory.  The AUTO program
 grabs the BIOS vector, so that it can redirect printer output to the laser
 via the  DMA port.  The desk accessory configuration program tries to find
 the AUTO program (every time  it's  activated)  by  looking  for  a "magic
 cookie" stored  by the AUTO program in the location immediately before its
 BIOS interception code.  Problem: if  another program  intercepts the BIOS
 vector AFTER the Diablo emulator AUTO program, the configuration accessory
 is unable  to find  the AUTO  program (because  the "magic  cookie" is not
 where the accessory thinks it should be).  
 There are  a number  of ways to reliably find another program.  One of the
 easiest is  to make  a "fake"  call to  one of  the trap  routines with an
 undefined function  code.   The ST's BIOS and XBIOS will ignore calls with
 undefined function codes, and  simply return  with no  ill effects  if the
 program you're  searching fyour  code will not
 conflict  with  future  additions  to  the  BIOS  or XBIOS functions.  The
 receiving program can then  return whatever  kind of  information you need
 from it (you've got lots of registers to use).  
 Here's  an  example  (in  assembly  language)  of  some  code that uses an
 undefined BIOS call to detect the presence of another program: 
   -------------------r and examine the stack after each trap #13 call 
 * to see if the magic word function number is present.  If it is, the 
 * target program should load the return value into d5 and perform  an RTE.

         moveq   #0,d5           ; Clear d5 in preparation 
         move    #$4857,-(sp)    ; Magic word - undefined BIOS call 
         trap    #13             ; Call BIOS 
         addq    #2,sp           ; Correct the stack 
         tst.l    d5                  ; If d5 is still zero, we didn't find
         beq.s   notfound        ; If non-zero, it's a returned value 
         move.l  d5,returned     ; Save the returned value somewhere 
 (NOTE: The version of TOS (1.6) that will be supplied with Atari's STE and
 TT machines  has a  new feature  called the  "Cookie Jar,"  which does not
 suffer from the problems described here.  It provides a documented address
 where programs  can search for "magic cookies"; it's a nice solution.  Our
 only complaint  with  the  "Cookie  Jar"  is  that  we  wish  it  had been
 implemented three year------- 
 Do not try to monitor and maintain a vector from a vertical blank or other
 timed interrupt (in other words, don't keep watching  it and  replacing it
 if it  changes).  Think for a moment about what happens if two programs do
 this at the same time.  (Ouch.)  This extremely  bad practice  may seem to
 work  when  no  other  programs  are  using  the same vrom an interrupt or trap vector.   There is
 _very_  little  stack  headroom  available  in  the  location  used by the
 operating system.  A system stack overflow will cause crashes  that can be
 extremely difficult to diagnose.  
 If you  need to save registers during some vector-handling code, it's best
 to save them in a location in your own program,  instead of  on the system
 stack.  For example: 
         movem.l d0-a6,-(sp)    ; Don't do this! 
         movem.l d0-a6,regsave  ; Do this instead. 
 Always restore  all registers and the status register when your routine is
 finished.  Don't even assume that you can  destroy D0  or A0  because some
 programs (believe  it or  not) actually rely on them to return from a trap
 unchanged.  (The exceptions to this rule are  the BIOS  and XBIOS vectors;
 the dispatching  routines for  these vectors  always trash register A0, so
 it's safe to use A0 in a BIOS or XBIOS routine without saving it.) 
 Don't alter the processor state.  That is, don't 'rte' into your  own code
 in  order  to  be  in  USER  mode because other programs down the line may
 expect the machine to be in SUPERVISOR mode. 
 When intercepting frequently called  traps (such  as trap  #2), always use
 optimized  assembly  language  routines  to eliminate a slowdown in system
 operation.  Don't make the "GDOS mistake".  
 Never assume something simply because  it  always  "seems  to  be."   This
 includes  using  "hard"  addresses  specific to a particular ROM, assuming
 that certain vectors will  be pointing  to ROM  routines, assuming  that 8
 bytes into  the GEM  base page  is pointing  into the  OS, or making _any_
 decision based on an empirical condition.  
 Use the source code provided below for maintaining the trap #2 vector from
 a resident  program.  This somewhat oblique method is required because the
 operating system stuffs its own address into the  trap #2  vector (with no
 regard for  what is  there) after  running a  TOS program, and possibly at
 other times as  well.    (Yes,  we  are  aware  that  this  routine breaks
 Commandment IX.)   The  routine which  handles trap  #13 in this code also
 demonstrates  a  method  to   remain  compatible   with  68010/68020/68030
 processors, by checking a new BIOS variable Atari has documented.  
 Commandment XI  may be  the most difficult one to follow.  Have the wisdom
 to know when it's necessary to  break any  of the  other commandments, and
 the responsibility  to think  through the consequences if you do.  Some of
 these rules should _never_ be broken; others can be bent once in  a while,
 as long  as you carefully consider all the ramifications.  Above all, just
 as in any other endeavor, you have to learn the rules and understand the 
 reasons for their existence before you can get away with breaking them. 
                    *                                       * 
                    *  Intercept the trap #2 vector         * 
                    *                                       * 
                    *  Code by Charles F. Johnson           * 
                    *                                       * 
                    *  Includes ideas, techniques and       * 
                    *  refinements by Bob Breum,            * 
                    *  Chris Latham, and John Eidsvoog      * 
                    *  Last revision: 06/26/88  12:13:32    * 
                    *                                       * 
 * ------------------------ 
 *  Program initialization 
 * ------------------------ 
         move.l  #prog_end,d6    ; Get address of end oogram 
         sub.l   4(sp),d6        ; Subtract start of basepage - save  in d6

         move.l  #not_auto,addrin ; Try to do an alert box 
         move    #1,intin 
         move.l  #f_alrt,aespb 
         move.l  #aespb,d1 
         move    #$C8,d0 
         trap    #2 
         tst     intout          ; If intout is zero, we're in \AUTO 
         beq.s   .start1 
       #2 right away if run from
         move    #38,-(sp)       ; Supexec 
         trap    #14 
         addq    #6,sp 
         move    #1,prgflg       ; Set flag indicating desktop load 
         bra.s   .start2 
         pea     title           ; Print title message 
         move    #9,-(sp) 
         trap    #1 
         addq    #6,sp 
         dc.w    $A000           ; Don't you just love Line A? 
         move.l  a0,line_a       ; Save the address of the Line A variables

         pea     set_bios(pc)    ; Appropriate the Trap #13 vector 
         move    #38,-(sp) 
         trap    #14 
         addq.l  #6,sp 
         clr.w   -(sp)           ; Terminate and Stay Resident 
         move.l  d6,-(sp)        ; Number of bytes to keep 
         move    #$31,-(sp)      ; That's all folks! 
         trap    #1              ; We are now happily resident in RAM 
 * ------------------------------- 
 *  Desktop vector initialization 
 * ------------------------------- 
         move.l  $88,t2_vec      ; Set my fall throughs 
         move.l  $88,aesvec 
         move.l  #my_trap2,$88   ; Steal trap #2 (GEM) 
 * ----------------------- 
 *  Steal the BIOS vector 
 * ----------------------- 
         move.l  $B4,t13adr      ; Set Bios fall through 
         move.l  #my_t13,$B4     ; Steal trap #13 (BIOS) 
 * ------------------------ 
 *  Trap #13 wedge routine 
 * ------------------------ 
         btst      #5,(sp)         ; Was the trap called from super or user
         beq.s   t13_ex          ; If from user mode, bail out 
         lea     6(sp),a0        ; Pointer to function code on stack 
         tst     $59E            ; See what _longframe has to tell us 
         beq.s   notlng          ; If _longframe is zero, it's a 68000 
         lea     8(sp),a0        ; Advance past the vector offset word 
 ***  This section is based on the assumption that the OS always calls 
 ***  BIOS setexec() immediately after obnoxiously grabbing back the trap 
 ***  #2 vector with no warning whatsoever.  Yes, this is an empirical 
 ***  condition, which violates Commandment IX.  (But there's no other 
 ***  way to prevent  cmp.l   #$050101,(a0)   ; Setexec call for critical  error vector?

         bne.s   t13_ex          ; Nope, exit 
         tst       prgflg          ; On the desktop? Or are vectors already
         beq.s   first_time      ; No, skip ahead 
         move.l  #my_trap2,$88   ; Pilfer trap #2 
         move.l  $404,d0         ; Get current crit vector 
         m           ; We only get  here if  we're last  in the
         tst.l   4(a0)           ; Reading the vector? 
         bmi.s   t13_ex          ; Yes, let the system take care of it 
         move.l   $4F2,a1           ; Get address of OS header (could be in
         move.l  8(a1),a1        ; Get pointer to base of OS from header 
         cmp.l   4(a0),a1        ; Is the crit error routine below  the OS?

         bhi.s   t13_ex          ; Yes, bail out 
         move.l   $14(a1),a1        ; Get address of end of OS (GEMDOS parm
         cmp.l   4(a0),a1        ; Is it above the OS? 
         blo.s   t13_ex          ; Yes, exit stage left 
 ***  This is a very important part of the code.  In order  to maintain the
 ***  correct vector chaining order when running at \AUTO time, it's 
 ***  that each  program first  fall through to the BIOS and RETURN TO ITS
 ***  CODE, grabbing the trap #2 vector  on the  way back.   This  way, the
 ***  that each  program intercepts  trap #2  is the same as the order in 
 ***  they run from the AUTO folder. 
         move    #1,prgflg       ; Set the 'first-time'/'desktop' flag 
         move.l  2(sp),retsav    ; Save return address 
         move.l  #t13_2,2(sp)    ; Replace it with my own 
 t13_ex: jmp     $DEADBEEF       ; Go to the Bios and come back, 
 t13adr  =       t13_ex+2        ;   maintaining the correct chaining order

 t13_2:   bsr     prg_start       ; Grab the trap #2 vector on the way back

         move.l  retsav(pc),-(sp) ; And return to the caller 
 retsav: dc.l    0 

     The techniques described here have worked successfully for us, both in
 our CodeHead  Software products  and our individual projects.  However, we
 do not wish to appear  as  the  final  and  absolute  authorities  on this
 subject.  If you can find any flaws in our scheme, or perhaps enlighten us
 with a more efficient trick, we can be easily reached.   The  quickest way
 to get  a reply  is to  leave a  message in the CodeHead Category (#32) on
 GEnie or leave GEnie  mail to  C.F.JOHNSON or  J.EIDSVOOG1.   You may also
 call CodeHead Software at (213) 386-5735. 
 For  quite  some  time  we've  been  hearing rumors about a new "standard"
 protocol devised in Germany, which  supposedly  can  prevent  some  of the
 problems  with  conflicting  vector-grabb  called  the  "XBRA"
 protocol -- here's how it works: 
 When a program needs to intercept  a trap  or interrupt  vector, it should
 put the  previous vector  address four  bytes before  the beginning of its
 routine, preceded by two longwords.  The first longword before the address
 should be  a unique  identification code for your application.  The second
 longword before the previous vector address  should be  the magic longword
 "XBRA"  ($58425241).    So,  in  assembly  language,  the  code would look
 something like: 
         dc.l    'XBRA'  ; Magic longword signifying XBRA protocol 
         dc.l    'BRAT'  ; Unique (hopefully) 4-byte ID 
 oldvec: dc.l    0       ; Put the previous vector address here 
 my_vector_routine:      ; Your vector-handling code starts here 
 In order for this protocol to  really work,  the vector  interception code
 should also  use the  previous vector address stored in the XBRA structure
 to fall through to the previous routine.  This way,  if it's  necessary to
 restructure  the  fall-through  chain,  any  vector interception code will
 automatically start falling through to the new address. 
         move.l  oldvec(pc),-(sp)  ; One way to fall through to the 
         rts                       ; address in an XBRA structure 
         move.l  oldvec(pc),jump+2 ; Another way to fall through: 
 jump:   jmp     $ADEADBEE         ; by modifying a JMP instruction. 
                                   ; This uses more memory, and may 
                                   ; not work on a 68030 (without 
                                   ; tweaking), but it doesn't use 
                                   ; the system stack. 
 The main use of XBRA seems to be  to allow  programs to  unhook themselves
 from  a  vector  chain;  it  provides  a  method whereby programs can walk
 through  the  chain  of  vectors,  unhook  themselves  (or   unhook  other
 programs!) if  necessary, and even restructure the whole chain.  Again, it
 would have been nice if the XBRA protocol  were proposed  three years ago;
 if even  one program  in the chain is not following XBRA, the whole scheme
 is useless.  And since there are _many_ programs that don't use  XBRA, the
 scheme is of little use in the real ST world at the present.  
 Still, it  doesn't take  much effort to implement the XBRA protocol, so it
 may be a good idea to use it in any  future vector-grabbing  programs.  If
 all programs  used XBRA,  _some_ of  the problems  with conflicting vector
 thieves could be eased.  (Why does XBRA remind us of Esperanto, the United
 Nations-sponsored  "international  language"  that  was  going  to make it
 possible for all mankind to live in peace?) 
 (NOTE: In our opinion the XBRA protocol could be i  structure immediately before the previous vector
 address.  If the structure looked like this: 
         dc.l    'XBRA' 
         dc.l    'BRAT' 
 jump:   dc.w    $4EF9    ; 680x0 absolute JMP instruction 
 oldvec: dc.l    0        ; Put the previous vector address here 
 my_vector_routine:       ; Your vecto---------------------------------- 
 then a program could simply branch to the label "jump" to fall  through to
 the previous vector-handling routine. 
 We must  _emphasize_, however,  that this  is merely an observation on our
 part.  Don't use this suggested extension to XBRA in your code,  since the
 XBRA protocol does NOT support it as of this date.) 
 It  should  be  pointed  out  that  XBRA  is  not  a  panacea; the "Eleven
 Commandments" we've outlined here are still valid, even  if you  do employ
 the XBRA  protocol in  your code.  In fact, since so many programs already
 exist that do not use XBRA, it's even  more important  not to  rely on the
 XBRA protocol to solve your problems for you. 
       *                                                         * 
       *  This document is copyright 1990 CodeHead Software      * 
       *  and may be freely distributed as long as this ASCII    * 
       *  text file is complete and unaltered in any way.  This  * 
       *  document MAY NOT be reprinted or used for commercial   * 
       *  purposes without express written permission from       * 
       *  CodeHead Software.                                     * 
       *                                                         * 
       *  If you wish to reprint this document, contact us at    * 
       *  the phone number given above for permission.           * 
       *                                                         * 


 > CRASWELL INTERVIEW CPU/STR Feature?  Jay Craswell is not, er ah, normal..

                        AND EXPLAINS DESKTOP SEWING

 by Charles Medley

 First of  all, I want to state that this is not simply an interview.  This
 is because interviewing Jay Craswell is not, well, a normal  process.  You
 cannot expect  to ask  a question and get normal answers. No,  you get far
 more than that.  You get entertainment.  So this will be more of a profile
 of the  demented and  creative mind  of this  Atari developer,  with a few
 Q&A's in there to  give you  an idea  of what  an interviewer  is going up

 Q:    What  has made you enter the Atari ST market, and become the "force"
      you are now in the industry?  

 A:   I have no idea.  Moniterm  made me design a card...  and then my  er-in-crime, Mark  Medin, wanted to do one better.  I tried to  
      making something of myself and failed.

 Q:   Okay, why are you in the ST market in particular?  A: Sewing.  

 Q:   Huh?  

 A:   Well, this company called Software Cafe pre-ordered five of our video
      boards, and they are writing a program that allows you draw logos and
      things.  Then it hooks up to a sewinas  possible, the topics of our conversations, and exactly WHO   
      this guy is.

     Jay works  for Image  Systems.   At least  for now  (when this article
 comes out,  he may be fired...<grin>).  He has received a bit of attention
 over a video card he has  made  for  the  Mega  ST  computer  which sports
 1024x768 resolution  with either  16 colors from 4096 or monochrome.  From
 talking to Jay, I can see that a  psychiatrist would  have fun  with him. 
 It seems that some of the major events in his formative years were:

 1)    Building model planes without instructions and using a hot butter   
      knife to insure that when you put the wheels on the planes, they     
      could still roll...       

 2)    Going  to see  "2001:  A Space Odyssey" with his brother-in-law as a
      "young teen" and sitting in the  front row  of a  theatre and getting
      sick during  one of  the psychedelic  scenes.   He attributes this as
      one of the reasons he works on video cards today.  

     Later in life, Jay  went on  to hold  a radio  station hostage  to his
 demands. The  station in  question was  one KXDL whose location  I  didn't
 get (but the call letters mean west of the  Rockies...).   Apparently, Jay
 used to  repair "important stuff" at the radio stations, and as a joke, he
 told the DJ that he had to play Frank Zappa and John  Lennon albums  if he
 was   going to  fix it.   Apparently,  the DJ conceded to Jay, and he went
 about his work.  However, Jay  erroneously wound  up on  the air  with the
 DJ, who asked him his full name, to which Jay claimed that he was "fleeing
 National Drug Enforcement Agents" and that he would not say his name. 

     Apparently, the DJ offered a Leif Garrett album as bounty to the first
 listener who  guessed "Jay the Repairman's" last name.  Also, Jay acquired
 an appreciation for classical music, such as Jimi Hendrix.   Being an avid
 Hendrix  fan,    he  has  a  ton  of  basement and bootleg tapes that have
 inspired him to become a member of  a  group  called  "Joe  Grow",  who is
 managed by  a guy  named "Nick  Vermin".   As you can see, this man is not
 normal, but who am I,  of all people, to judge?   He also has an affection
 for the   Rolling  Stones, and  anyone who  has seen  their stage has seen
 the  "300 foot inflatable women" that accompany  the show. 

     Well, anyway, after a long tortuous  life, Jay  wound up  acquiring an
 Atari ST  somehow, and  got "hired" as an independent contractor to do the
 video card for the Mega ST Viking Moniterms. He worked  on this  with Mark
 Medin,   a person who Jay claims "doesn't talk much" <who will most likely
 say something about Jay  telling the  world that>.   Mark  is apparently a
 very  seyone else had these cards  except, of  course, the
 Atari".   With the noblest of intents, Mark and Jay got to work on what is
 now called the Image Systems ATR-4CP 1024x768 4  plane video  board, which
 touts a meager  suggested list price of $800.  

     Also, for  those who  enjoy a  good "SCOOP", here is one.  You read it
 here first:  Image Systems is working on  two video  cards for  the ST and
 TT030/2.   Both are  roughly two  MEGAPIXEL (two  million pixel) displays.
 One is monochrome with a resolution of "roughly" 2000x1500 and  requires a
 24" monitor,  but it  would work on the 19" Viking monitors.  The other is
 color, uses a 21" monitor and  has 1600x1280  resolution.   No mention was
 made  by  Jay  as  to  the  full capability of the color display (i.e. bit
 planes and such), but  both of these  products are  "still on  the drawing
 board" and  will be  a while before hitting the market.  Also, they may or
 may not have page-flipping capability (so  more VRAM  <video RAM>  will be
 needed, which  is expensive) for supporting smooth animation capabilities,
 so, the price may be quite high.  Finally, to  end this  article, I wanted
 to mention that Jay has some fascinating views on:

          "Little old  ladies  walking around with .357 Magnums looking for

           Three key ingredients:
               1) You have to watch crude movies
               2) make bad jokes about the movies
               3) drink toxic material..  all  on  the  day  before  or the
                  morning of the wedding.

          "Get a Marina Triangle..."

          "My favorite  was when Robin was out on a date and he got the Bat
          Signal and had to  pick  between  a  gorgeous  girl  and possibly
          getting whipped on by a guy wearing lipstick." 

     So, as  you eople behind the
 wonderful products that appear in the ST market place.  ST Developers tend
 to not  be as stuffy as IBM and Mac developers, and they tend to drop more
 hints at the secrets of the  Mother  Corporation  (Atari  Corp.)  than the

 Here, is one such secret: 
     Leonard Tramiel's favorite movie this year was "Earth Girls Are Easy".

     <the  above  is  a  clos two  of  them are
     clones,   since Jay  claims that Leonard is "a lot like myself", which
     is SCARY....>

                           STatus Disk Magazine
                             4431 Lehigh Road
                                 Suite 299
                          College Park, MD  20740

                          $30/6 issues = 1 year 

 > PCD2 HELP! CPU/STR OnLine?   AG finally gets online....

 ctsy GEnie Atari RT

 Tue Feb 20, 1990
 pc-ditto II owners who've asked for PAL replacements

     Thanks for all of your kind  e-mail.   As most  of you  mentioned, our
 initial  "replacement"   post  was  not  meant  to  be  insulting  to  the
 intelligencia of the majority of ST owners online.   With  good intentions
 in mind,  we recognize most here are experts in electronics and computers.
 As such, we really have endeavored to reach to those with less experience.
 And, we're glad the rest of you have not taken offense.  Again, thanks!

     Refunds to  pc-ditto II  orders (requested via e-mail or message).  In
 case you have only requested a refund by  e-mail, and  not called  or used
 the USPO, then your request was logged today and your refund is being sent
 tomorrow (Wednesday).  We apologize for the delay.  (Had we heard from you
 by another  means, your  refund would already have been sent).  Due to the
 fires we have been putting out lately, we have not downloaded any  mail or
 messages in  a while.   Again, your refunds are on their way, and we still
 appreciate your support!

  Missing warranty card and users manual
     If  you  purchased  pc-ditto  II  at  the  $150  discount  price  from
 Avant-Garde, you  did not  receive a  warranty card nor a pc-ditto II User
 Manual.  Actually, the "warranty" card is a registration card.   Since you
 received the  discount offer, you are already registered, and there was no
 reason to waste your time on another registration.  (By the  way, pc-ditto
 II  is  warranted,  and  the  warranty  is  described  in  the rear of the
 pc-ditto II Installation Manual).  Also,  the user's  manual is  the Users
 Manual from  pc-ditto, since  the operation of the software in pc-ditto II
 is the same as with pc-ditto for convenience. 

  Smaller pc-ditto II board
     The current size of pc-ditto II is not  compatible with  some Atari ST
 models that also contain other hardware upgrades.  In most instances,  the
 remainder of space inside  the upgraded  machine is  too small  to  permit
 even the  installation of  a postage stamp, much less any circuit  board. 
 We are looking into technology to reduce the board size, and we will  keep
 you posted when we have more specific information and dates.

  New pc-ditto II software Version 1.0001
     We have  released a  new version  of the pc-ditto II software, Version
 1.0001.  Only the programs pc_d2.1  and pc_d2.2  have changed,  and copies
 are   available in  the library  on this network.  This version corrects a
 minor  video glitch,  increases the  video speed  another 10  percent, and
 increases  the compatibility of other IBM software, including games.

  Blitter fix for pc-ditto II owners
     Currently, some  ST owners  with pc-ditto II installed must first turn
 off their blitter (via the OPTIONS menu on the Desktop).  We are currently
 producing a  software program  that will  eliminate this  extra step.  The
 software will be available on this  network  in  the  next  few  days.   A
 document file  will also  explain the usage of the program (you will click
 the program rather pcditto2.prg, so no extra steps will be needed).

  Mega Connector for pc-ditto II
     We are currently investigating a connector for the Mega Expansion Bus.
 The problem  is that  many of  the pinouts are not exactly the same as the
 68000 pins.  Consequently,  many of  the electrical  connections needed by
 pc-ditto II  are not provided by the Expansion Bus and must be obtained by
 attaching wires to other points in  the  Mega.    This  ae are researching ways  to permit the
 use of  a connector  without resorting to these limitations.  We will post
 an announcement on  this  network  when  we  have  decided  on alternative
 solutions and request commentary for the final implementation.

  Missing Diagnostic program on pc-ditto II disk
     There is  no diagnostic  program on  the pc-ditto II disk.  Subsequent
 to the printing of the Installation Manual, the  diagnostics were included
 in the  software startup  routines.   (Most of  the work in setting up the
 hardware is  done at  that time,  and since  the setups  were being tested
 anyway, it  seemed best to perform the complete testing each time for user
 convenience).   One note:  Diagnostic testing is simplistic  at best.   No
 software  diagnostics  can  test  for  all hardware problems.  pc-ditto II
 hardware also falls prey to certain conditions that  cannot be  checked by
 software.    But,  for  many  things,  the diagnostics is very useful as a
 first step in discovering a hardware deficiency.

  pc-ditto II and ST models with 68000 chip under spacebar
     Because the revision naming and numbering conventions used to identify
 ST motherboards  has not  been consistent, we now specify motherboards  by
 the location of the 68000 chip.  We have had reports that an old   version
 of the  motherboard has  the 68000 located under the spacebar at the front
 of their ST.  The  design  of  the  pc-ditto  II  68000  Connector  is not
 compatible with  these machines.   We  have a special connector that  that
 will provide  a  lower  clearance  and  better  angulation  of  the cables
 towards the  rear of  the machine.   pc-ditto  II owners with one of these
 machines may return their connector in exchange for  one of  these special
 connectors.   The exchange  is no  charge, but the returned connector must
 be in original shape as received, without alterations or other damage.

  Return to:  Avant-Garde Systems
              381 Pablo Point Drive
              Jacksonville, FL   32225

  Note:   If your machine does NOT have the 68000 under the spacebar, do
          not request a connector exchange.  The new connector will     
          definitely be incompatible and cause problems for your        

  pc-ditto II boards with new PAL chips
     A few members of this network have requested we hold their shipment of
 pc-ditto II until the boards contain the new PAL chips, regardless whether
 the old chips would work with their machine (just in case).   If you would
 like to  add your name to that list, please send us e-mail (not a message)
 and include your pc-ditto serial number.   We  will hold  your board until
 the new  PALs are  available and  ship the  board with the new PALs on it.

  ST models used in pc-ditto testing
     Someone asked  what  model  STs  we  used  for  designing  and testing
 pc-ditto II.

  They are:  18                                          Connector)

     All these machines had the 6 ROM set with no modifications.  (One 1040
 is now dead -- we spilled a Coke in it  last year).   The  Megas had 120ns
 memory, the others had 150ns memory.

  We recently added six more STs to our stable.  They are:

  3 1040 STs  Rev.1  (68000 perpendicular to drive); 120ns memory
  1 1040 ST   Rev.2 icular to drive); 150ns memory
  1 520  STfm Rev.1  (68000 perpendicular to drive); 120ns memory

    (motherboard silk marked as 1040, however; only bank 0 memory filled)

          By the  way, we  use ten  of the  STs in  our burn-in center; the
          remainder we use throughout, mostly for design and testing.

  pc-ditto II boards with missing chip
  -------------------------lease return
 the board  to us  so we  may send  you another board.  (We ask for the old
 board, rather than just send a chip, because  we can  test the  board here
 to insure  no other  damage has  occurred to  it.  All of these boards are
 burned-in (tested) before they are  shipped.    Either  we  mishandled the
 board in  packaging it,  or somewhere  along the  way, it  was vibrated or
 mishandled.  Anyway, please send a note along with your  returned board so
 we may return a new one to you as soon as possible.  Thanks!

  Intermittent pc-ditto II problems
     We  have  received  a  couple  of problem reports of pc-ditto II units
 that installed successfully.   DOS  would  boot  fine,  but  sometimes the
 keyboard  would  become  erratic,  or  the  system  may  lock up at random
 intervals.  We have traced those  symptoms down  to the  timing problem we
 have  experienced with other pc-ditto II units that fail upon booting DOS.
  Thus, the  fix involves  the same  two PAL  chips we  have requested from
 other pc-ditto  II owners:   U15  EMSPAL  and  U27  GLUPAL.  Please return
 them to us for replacement parts.   

 Note:    If your pc-ditto II suffers only from occasional video screen    
          garbage, you  will need only a software update (Version 1.0001). 
          Please refer to the posted library files for those and  any later
          update versions.

  pc-ditto II Installed Correctly, But Does Not Boot
     We have  received early reports from some users that their pc-ditto II
 was installed correctly (because  there  were  no  error  messages  on the
 startup screen).   However,  after pressing  the RETURN  key to start DOS,
 the disk drive would spin, the the ST would lock  up.   Below is  a set of
 steps to follow to check your machine and pc-ditto II operation.


 1.    First,  check  the  connections  of the connector to the 68000 chip.
     The diagnostics routines (which  run automatically  at startup) cannot
     check all  connections, and even one pin not connected well will cause
     pc-ditto II not to boot.  We recommend a continuity test between  the 
     top pins on the connector and the 68000 pins on the bottom of the  ST.

     (Contact us if you need to know how to do a continuity test --
     ...anyone can do it).

 2.   Second, check  that the disk you boot from (or the hardisk partition)
     correctly has a bootable DOS on it.    pc-ditto  II  will  lock  up if
     trying to boot a GEM format disk.  (Bootable disks are created on with
     the DOS FORMAT command.  See your DOS manual for more information).

 3.  Next, be sure the 8087 jumper is installed  correctly on  the pc-ditto
     II board (see pc-ditto II Installation Manual for details).

 4.   Then, with  the ST  open, check  the top  of the large, square custom
     chips on the ST motherboard (they are referred to as GLU and MMU).  If
     either or  both have a designation label IMP, then those chips need to
     be swapp (Your ST  service center  can assist you with new chips).  Those parts
     are incapable of driving the additional load of pc-ditto II  and other
     hardware add-ons.
 5.   Finally, if  you have done all the above steps, and pc-ditto II still
     does not boot DOS, then you  must remove  two socketed  chips from the
     pc-ditto II  board and  return to  Avant-Garde for  replacement.  (The
     timings of some ST  models vary  outside standard  tolerances, and the
     replacement chips accommodate these new timings).

 Here's how its done....  

          The  chips  are  labeled:     U27 GLUPAL (part TIBPAL 20L8-25CNT)
                                   U15 EMSPAL (part TIBPAL 16R4-25CN).

     First, disconnect the pc-ditto II board from the cables.  Then, please
 carefully remove these two chips (a flat-edge screwdriver under the end of
 each chip works best).  

 CAUTION:  Please observe static  discharge  procedures  (as  noted  in the
           pc-ditto II  Installation Manual) to prevent damage to your     

     Then, wrap  the two  chips in  a soft  packing material  and return to
 Avant-Garde (the  address is  in the  Installation manual.  Call technical
 support if you have any other  questions).   Please include  your name and
 return  address.    We  will  return two new replacement chips, along with
 instructions on replacing them.

  Missing pc-ditto II Installation Manual Steps
     Later this week, we will be uploading to  the libraries  text versions
 of the  missing steps  for placement  of the pc-ditto II board in an ST.  
 Because these text files contain no  graphic images,  you may  also E-MAIL
 or contact  us to  receive a copy of the actual manual pages complete with

                                             Thanks! AVANT-GARDE

 > N.A.S.A. Schedules CPU/STR InfoFile?    Full schedules and plans...

                    NEW NASA SHUTTLE SCHEDULE FOR 1990

 provided by Pete Kemp

     NASA  announced  Monday  it  is  shuffling  its  space  shuttle launch
 schedule, reducing  from 10 to 9 the # of flights this year and aiming for
 12 flights in 1992 and 13 in 1993.  The new sght, that of a SDI payload, was put off  nearly 14
 months  until  January  1992.  No  specific  reason was given for the long
 delay.  The space agency's new long-range schedule calls for  8 flights in
 1991, 12  in 1992,  13 in  1993, 11  in 1994,  11 in 1995, and 10 in 1996.
 Delays in the LDEF and HST flights apparently prompted the change.
       The new manifest for Space Shuttles scope.
 * 05/09/90 Columbia  (STS-35) with an Astronomy Laboratory and
                               WA4SIR operating SAREX.
 * 07/08/90 Atlantis  (STS-38) with DOD payload.
 * 08/29/90 Columbia  (STS-40) with Space Life Sciences Laboratory.
 * 10/05/90  Discovery (STS-XX)  with the  Ulysses spacecraft  to study the
 * 11/01/90 Atlantis  (STS-37) with the Gamma Ray Observatory to study deep
 *  12/12/90   Columbia    (STS-42)  with  the  International  Microgravity

 From : FRANK KLAESS at Mile High #5 Colorado
 Provided by the NASA Educational Affairs Division
 Operated by the Marshall Space Flight Center

            Amateur Radio Retransmission of Shuttle Audio/Video
 The Goddard Space Flight Center Amateur Radio Club (GARC) has transmitted,
 by Amateur Radio, NASA Select audio on the following freoverage *
 15 Meters: 21.395 MHz  World wide coverage *
 10 Meters: 28.650 MHz  World wide coverage *
          AO-13 (AMSAT OSCAR-13) Satellite; 145.945 MHz. 
                                   Primary; 145.955 MHz. 
          Alternate. This Mode B requires a satellite-high gain antenna
          *  Coverage  is  dependent  on  Solar   Activity  and  Ionosphere
          conditions.  With a good short-wave receiver and outside antenna,
          reception should be possible.  Due to ionospheric  conditions and
          time of  day/night, certain bands have better reception. A search
          of each band is recommended.
     The GARC plans to re-transmit Shuttle video on Amateur TV for hams and
 ham TV  watchers in the Washington, DC area. Contacts at GSFC: Russ Jones,
 N3EGO, or Frank Bauer, KA3HDO.
     The Marshall Center Amateur  Radio Club  will re-transmit  NASA Select
 audio at 147.100 and 145.100 MHz. These transmissions can be heard only in
 the local Huntsville, Alabama area.

     People in the greater San Francisco Bay area  and Sacramento  can view
 the mission  via the  W6NKF Amateur Television repeater on MT.Diablo which
 operates on 427.250 MHZ with vertical polarization. Those with cable ready
 TVs and  VCRs or cable TV converters can tune this equipment to channel 58
 in the CATV format and by hooking up an outside TV antenna  should be able
 to receive  the telecast.  This makes the service available to the general
 public, including schools, colleges, etc.
     Shuttle audio is re-transmitted in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota
 area on  145.150 MHZ  during Shuttle  flights.   Additionally, during some
 flights,  the  audio  is  also  re-transmitted  by  the  3M  ARC  repeater
 (WB0BQG/R) on 147.120 MHz FM.
     In the  Los Angeles area, Shuttle air-to-ground audio may sometimes be
 heard on VHF at 145.460 MHz.

     The  WB4LA  repeater  located   in  Dayton,   Ohio  on   145.110  MHz,
 re-transmits Shuttle Select audio.
 Shuttle audio is available in the Phoenix, Arizona area on 449.000 MHz FM.
     The Coastal Plains Amateur Radio Club provides Shuttle Audio on
 the WD4EVD Repeater in Ashburn, Georgia on 147.285 MHz FM.
     During STS  missions, NASA  Select audio is available on Amateur Radio
 repeater WD6BNO/R,  transmitting  on  entral San  Joaquin Valley,  California. Coverage includes Bakersfield to
 Stockton. ENJOY!!
     The Ames Amateur Radio Club re-broadcasts NASA Select Audio on 145.580
 MHz.    The  signal  originates  from the NASA-AMES Research Center in the
 heart of the Silicon Valley, Mountain View, Ca.
     NASA Select video is available for those who have a line-of-sight path
 to Black Mountain via Amateur TV. For ATV details, write:
                          AMES Amateur Radio Club
                                P.O. Box 73
                      Moffett Field, Ca., 94035-0073.
 The Johnson Space Center supplies NASA Select Audio on 146.640 MHz FM, via
 the W5RRR repeater.
 From WB4CXD: Shuttle audio can be heard in Birmingham, Alabama, on 145.380
 MHz directeater on
 146.940 MHz.
 NASA Select is on 444.300 (NN0V) and 146.400 MHz in the Cedar Rapids, Iowa


     The space shuttle transmits on three frequency bands, UHF, S-Band, and
 Ku-Band.  The UHF frequencies are simple AM voice and  very easy  to copy.
 These  frequencies  are  used  for  launch  and  landing  operations,  EVA
 communications, (i.e. from the spacesuits back and forth  to the shuttle),
 and as  an additional voice downlink when other channels are in use or the
 current ground station has  no S-Band  capability. The  frequencies in use
                 296.8 MHz - air to ground, or orbiter to suit
                 259.7 MHz - air to ground, or suit to orbiter
                 279.0 MHz - suit to orbiter or suit to suit
                 243.0 MHz - standard Mil aircraft emergency freq.
     The S-Band  system is  one of  the primary orbiter downlink bands. The
 voice channels are digital slope delta  modulation and  are multiplexed in
 with the  rest of  the orbiter  telemetry, very difficult to copy. Much of
 the downlink TV is on S-Band also but it is wideband FM and should be
 easily understandable. The frequencies are:
                 2287.5 MHz - primary digital downlink
                 2250.0 MHz - wideband FM with either main engine analog
                              telemetry during launch, or TV during orbit
     The Ku-Band system is used in conjunction with  the tracking  and data
 relay satellites and is used much more heavily in Spacelab flights than in
 others. The data is *very* high  rate  digital  (50  Mbits/sec  range) and
 therefore essentially  impossible for you to demodulate and decommutate in
 your  basement.  Nevertheless  the  shuttle  transmits  on  15.003GHz. You
 should also  note however that these transmissions are directed toward the
 TDRS satellite with  a  high  gain  antenna  and  would  therefore  not be
 copyable on the ground.
     The UHF  frequencies are  fun to  listen to  but are  not heavily used
 except during EVA's. You  will almost  always hear  some activity  on them
 however sometime during a mission but you just have to be patient.
 Other Frequencies of interest:
                           USAF/NASA Frequencies
                           4.510 MHz   9.974 MHz
                           4.760 MHz  10.780 MHz
                           4.855 MHz  11.104 MHz
                           4.992 MHz  11.414 MHz
                           5.350 MHz  11.548 MHz
                           5.810 MHz  14.615 MHz
                           6.727 MHz  19.303 MHz
                           6.740 MHz  19.984 MHz
                           8.993 MHz  20.191 MHz
                           9.315 MHz  20.475 MHz
 Search/Rescue (Aircraft) : 164.800 MHz
               (Ships)    : 148.500 MHz, 149.100 MHz, 162.000 MHz
 S-Band Microwave
 Air-to-Ground : 2205.0, 2217.5, 2250.0, 2287.5 MHz
 Ground-to-Air : 2041.9, 2201.4 MHz
 NASA Aeronautical Frequencies VHF/UHF in MHz
 117.8           118.4           116.4
 121.7           121.7           120.7
 126.2           125.1           121.8
 126.3           126.2           126.1
 284.0  8
                       KSC Ground Support VHF in MHz
                       148.480    163.510    170.350
                       149.170    163.560    171.150
                       162.610    165.190    171.260
                       163.460    170.150    173.560
                       163.480    170.170    173.680
 NASA Malabar (Palm Bay)                 HF Networks (in KHz)
  2405  Data Buoys                       2622  SRB Recovery (Primary)
  2664  Backup Mission Audio-Cape/Hou    2678  ETR Range Control
  2716  Navy Harbor Cntl-Port Canav.     2764  SRB Recovery Channel
  3024  Coast Guard SAR (Primary)    hannel
  4856  Cape Radio/Leader                4992  Cape Radio/Coast Guard Ships
  5180  NASA Tracking Ships              5187  NASA Tracking Ships
  5190  ETR Primary Night Channel        5350  Launch Support Aircraft
  5680  Launch Support Ships             5810  ETR Secondary Night Channel
  6720  SAR Primary Atlantic             6896  Cape Radio
  6837  Cape Radio                       7412  SAR Comms with The Bahamas
  7461  Cape Radio/Launch Support A/C    7525  NASA Ground Tracking Net
  7676  Launch Support Aircraft          7765  SRB Recovery Ships
  7919  Data Channel                     7985  Data Channel
  9022  Launch Support Aircraft          9043  Launch Support Aircraft
  9132  Launch Support Aircraft         10305  Space Missile Tactical Net
 10310  Malabar-to-Ascension Is-MUX     10780  ETR Primary Day Channel
 11104  Launch Support Ships            11252  Launch Support Ships
 11407  SRB Recovery Ships              11414  Cape Radio
 11548  Cape Radio                      11621  SRB Recovery Ships
 13227  Launch Support Aircraft         13237  Data Channel
 13495  Data Channel                    13600  Malabar-to-Ascension Is-MUX
 13878  Launch Support Aircraft         14937  Ascension Is-to-Malabar-MUX
 18009  Launch Support Ships            19303  Launch Support Ships
 19640  Cape Radio                      19966  Ascension Is-to-Malabar-MUX
 20186  Launch Tracking Net             20192  Malabar-to-Ascension Is-MUX
 20198  OCC Shuttle Mission Audio       20390  ETR-Secondary Day Channel
 22755  Ascension Is-to-Malabar-MUX     23413  Cape Radio
 27065  NASA CB Radios


 > CIS FileFinder CPU/STR InfoFile?    At last!  An easy way to find them.

     CompuServe  and  the  Atari  ST  Forums  are  pleased  to announce the
 availability of the new Atari ST File Finder (GO ATARIFF).   The  Atari ST
 File Finder  will help  you locate any file available in the Atari ST Arts
 Forum, Atari ST Productivity Forum, and Atari Vendors Forum FAST AND EASY!

     Just  enter  your  search  criteria  (User  ID  of  uploader, Keyword,
 Filename, etc.) and CompuServe will  tell  you  which  Forum  the  file is
 located in and in which specific Library!

                      WHAT IS THE ATARI FILE FINDER?

     File Finder  is an online comprehensive keyword searchable database of
 file descriptions from Atari related forums.  It  was designed  to provide
 quick and  easy reference to some of the best programs and files available
 in the following forums:

                         Atari Productivity Forum
                            Atari ST Arts Forum
                            Atari Vendors Forum

     Browsing through files has never been  easier or  more time efficient.
 File Finder  provides you  with seven  common search  criteria for quickly
 finding the location of a wanted file or files.  You can  search by topic,
 file submission  date, forum name, file type, file extension, file name or
 submittor's userid.  File descriptions,  forum  and  library  location are
 displayed for  the matched  files giving  instant information  on where to
 find a most wanted file.


 The Atari File Finder can be  accessed by  selecting the  appropriate menu
 choice from the ATARINET Menu (GO ATARINET) or by typing GO ATARIFF at any
 CompuServe service "!" command prompt.


 The File Finder database consists of  files from  various CompuServe Forum
 Libraries.  This database allows you to search for files under the various
 criteria, which are listed below.  The area  also gives  you the  date the
 file was  uploaded, the Forum where you can download the file, the library
 where the file resides, and a description of the file.

 You can locate your file of interest by using the search procedure that is
 available  from  the  menu  and  based  on  one  or  more of the following

          You are prompted for the keywords you would like the  software to
          search by.   This  would be  useful when you would like to find a
          file relating to a certain  topic,  but  you  are  unsure  of the
          filename.   If you  would like  help in locating keywords, choose
          choice 3 from the preceding menu.

          This search criteria  selection  will  allow  you  to  search the
          database for  files submitted during a specific time period.  You
          will be prompted for the upper and lower limits of the range.

          If you know that a file was submitted to a forum during a certain
          period of time, you might use this method to locate the file.

          Searching by  Forum Name  will allow  you to select the forum you
          want to search from.  You  will  be  given  a  menu  of available
          Forums.   If you  know the  forum where  a file  resides, you can
          search that  particular  forum  under  any  of  the  other search
          criteria that are listed.

          You will  be prompted  for the  type of  file you  would like to 
          search by.  Your choices are:

          This option will allow you to search a file by its
          extension, such as ASC, TXT, ARC, DAT, or BIN.

          If you know the  exact filename,  this option  will allow  you to
          search for the file by name.

          This  criteria  will  allow  you  to  search for the files in the
          database that were uploaded by a particular User ID#.

          Should your  search criteria  come up  with nothing,  you will be
          prompted for your "Next Action", which could be:

                         1.  Begin New Search
                         2.  Restore Previous Selection Set

          After a  search has  been completed, if the number of files found
          is larger than 19,  you will  be prompted  to take  an additional
          action.  Your options would be:

                         1.  Display Selections
                         2.  Narrow the Search
                         3.  Begin a new search

 Option 1  will allow  you to  look at the files that have met the criteria
 that you specified in  your  search.    When  you  choose  to  display the
 selections, you  will be  presented with  a menu.   Once you select a file
 from the menu, you will see the forum name, the library number of the file
 and the filename.

 By selecting  option 2,  you will be able to continue to do a search using
 the selection set that was created by your initial search.

 Option 3, will allow you to start all over and begin a  new search through
 the database.

 If your  search criteria  comes up  with less than 19 files, the filenames
 will be displayed to you and you can select the  file that  you would like
 to review.


 > Stock Market ~ CPU NewsWire?

                                                    THE TICKERTAPE

 by Michael Arthur

 Concept by Glenn Gorman

       Atari Stock  went down  1/4 of  a point  on Monday, but recovered by
 going up 1/4 of a point on Tuesday.  On Wednesday, Atari Stock went up 1/8
 of a  point, and on Thursday it went up 1/4 of a point.  On Friday it went
 down 1/8 of a point.  Finishing up the week at 6  7/8 points,  Atari stock
 is up 1/2 of a point from the last report.

    Apple Stock was down 1/2 of a point from Friday, February 9, 1990.
           Commodore Stock was down 1/4 of a point from 2/09/90.
                  IBM Stock was up 1 point from 2/09/90.

               Stock Report for Week of 2/1rt|Last     Chg.|Last     Chg.|Last     Chg.|Last   Chg.|Last    Chg. |
 Atari| 6 5/8  - 1/4|6 7/8   + 1/4|  7     + 1/8|7 1/4  +1/4|7 1/8   - 1/8|
      |             |             |             |           | 38,900  Sls |
  CBM | 8 1/4  - 1/4|8 1/8   - 1/8|8 3/8   + 1/4|8 3/8      |8 1/4   - 1/8|
      |             |             |             |           | 58,800  Sls |
 Apple|  34    - 1/4|34 1/2  + 1/2|34 1/4  - 1/4|   -----   |   33 3/4    |
      |             |             |             |           |1,135,800 Sls|
  IBM |101 1/8      |103 1/4      |103 1/4  +1/2|103 3/4    |103 1/2  -1/4|
      |102 1/2-1 3/8|       +2 1/8|             |           |2,201,400 Sls|

      'Sls' refers to the # of stock shares that were traded that day.
      'CBM' refers to Commodore Corporation.
       '  '  means that the stock's price did not change for the day.


 > DynaCADD V CPU/STR Review?     When only the best will do..

                                        DynaCADD 1.7  Vs  Autocad 10

 by Myles Goddard

     DynaCADD's drop  down menus are always available via a menu bar.  This
 is a boon to CADD users and it sure makes it a  lot easier  than trying to
 remember  hundreds  of  commands  or  trying  to  remember where a certain
 command is located.  On the menu bar you will find six menu titles.   They
 are, DESK,  FILE, SET-UP,  TOOLS, IMAGES and GCP.  Under each category you
 will find options.  As you select a  category, the  menu system  will drop
 down and  you can  move the mouse to the desired option and click with the
 left mouse button.  Additionally, when  you  want  to  access  the options
 without using  the mouse you can use the ALT key in combination with other
 pre-selected keys.  For instance, if you want to quit, you simply  hit ALT
 & Q to quit your session.

     Under the  DESK MENU  you will  find the  DynaCADD information option.
 Click this on and it will tell you which version of Dynacadd  you have and
 the  copyright  notice.    Under  the  same  title,  you  will  find  your
 accessories.  Normally, when using a  1 meg  ST, you  should not  have any
 accessories installed,  due to  memory limitations.  Furthermore there may
 be a memory conflict with certain DA's as well.

     The next menu option on the bar  is  the  FILE  MENU.    Here  you can
 activate Save Part, which saves both the part and drawing to your selected
 filename.  Every setting you were using in the drawing  will be  saved and
 when you bring it back to work on it, all the settings will be just as you
 left them.  As with many applications, it is best to save  your work every
 now and  then to  make sure  you don't  lose everything in case there is a
 power bump.  I'm sure everyone knows what that means!

     Under the Save part slot is the option Save Part  As option.   This is
 identical to Save Part except here you can change the filename in case you
 decide that the original name isn't as good as you thought it was.

     The next slot is the Save Default option.  If you  are doing  a lot of
 drawings with  the same dimensions and scale, this lets you start all your
 drawings with  the same  defaults every  time you  start a  session.  Very
 handy too.  Autocad lets you do the same except it is not as easy to do as
 with DynaCADD.

     Next, we come to  Save Macro  option.   This letsnd it is really self explanatory.  It lets you merge  any drawing to
 another  from  your  data  disk  drive.   File Transfer is DynaCADD's file
 conversion  program  that  allows  the  porting  of  Autocad's  DXF files,
 DynaCADD's  DEF  files  and  ASC.    You can only export DXF and DEF files
 though.  The Clear  option, when  selected, will  clear the  memory of the
 current drawing,  wh
 this option should only be used when you ARE sure you want  to stop.   The
 Restore option  will allow you to reload the current part and drawing from
 the data disk.   This option  cannot be  UNDO'd so  what you  have done is

     The Database  Sort is  equivalent to Autocad's REDO command.  When you
 have gone into your drawing and edited numerous times you will find points
 ain the
 drawing and how much you have remaining and  the percentage  of  available
 memory for use.         

     The next  option slot  is List  Ascii.  This allows you to load a text
 (ASCII) file into the text editor box.

 The controls to view the text are:
     ^-S       stop the scrolling        ^-Q       restart the  scrolling  
     Control -  slows the scrolling       UNDO      Cancels online docs    
     Alt       Fast scrolling        

          Remember, this is merely a viewer and editing cannot be performed
          while text editor box is open.         

     The next  option is  for Background  Output.   This is simply a way to
 send your commands to the printer  or  plotter  while  you  are  doing the
 drawing.   Every command is printed as you do them so you will have a hard
 copy of what you have done while you are actually drawing.         

     Of course, the option you will use every time you  work with DynaCADD,
 is QUIT.   This is activated by selecting with the mouse or by hitting the
 Alternate Q combination.  A box will appear and prompt you to quit without
 saving or save and then end the session.         

     This concludes  this portion  of the  MENU BAR  options.  Next time we
 will go into the SET UP  MENU.    This  controls  all  the  parameters for
 getting your drawing set up the way you want it.



 - Rockville, MD.               **** GENIE OPENING NEW EUROPEAN NODES ****

     Our  info  has  it  that  Genie  will,  "at about the same time as the
 Hannover Computer  Fair,  announce  that  West  Germany  is  being brought
 onboard  the   extensive  Genie   Network."     Additionally,  Genie  will
 methodically involve most of  Western Europe  in the  coming year.   GEnie
 will be  conducting an  online conference  in the  Atari ST  RT this March
 originating from Australia (March 07).  The guest will be ISD's Nathan P.

 - San Francisco, CA.                 ****  ANTIC LATEST TO GET HURT?  ****

     Well, Antic is down to Technical  'Support'   Monday AND  Friday ONLY,
 8:00am  -  5pm    PST.    With  Atari  and their lack of activity, (Sales-
 Advertising  etc), in the US COMPUTER market now going  on for  what seems
 like  forever,  another  landmark  company  and folks becomes their latest
 victim.  All those who have purchased from "The Catalog"  now  must put up
 with the  busy signal blues.  The list is long and hard feelings run deep,
 when is Atari gonna wake up?

 - Toronto, Canada                  **** MEGAFILE 44 ON SALE IN CANADA ****

     Atari has the megafile  and other  "NOT FOR  SALE IN  THE US" products
 readily  available  in  Canada  and  other  parts  of  the world.  Why the
 continued three fingered sign aimed at the US market...  What gives?   The
 time is really at hand for some solid answers. 

 - Philadelphia, PA.                ***** ATARI PLAYING A SHELL GAME? *****

     Many times  mention has  been made  of the ill-fated Stacy, like where
 is it and when can it be bought?  The new question  is why  is it possible
 to buy  this thing  from J&R in person but when one calls on the phone the
 typical answer is; "what unit?  Do you have a  model number?"   Two rather
 substantial  dealers  who  carry  Atari computer products in quantity have
 informed us that they are  seriously  considering  telling  Atari  and its
 staff of  comedians they  call marketing  a very clear message.  "No Stacy
 for us, then let your music dealers sell it all for you!"   1990  may just
 be the year for Atari, ... the year for Atari's RUDE AWAKENING!  Atari had
 betis latest fiasco.  They, simply put, are not interested in the
 class A and B baloney, they  WANT the  product to  offer for sale..period!
 When they  are told  it goes  in music stores only it is like lighting the
 fuse...   Hey ... SUNNYVALE!!  WAKE UP!!!


 > WOA ANAHEIM STR FOCUS            The show must go on!

                                       WORLD OF  ATARI SHOW -> ANAHEIM, CA.

                              WORLD OF ATARI
                             APRIL 7 & 8 1990

 WORLD OF ATARI will be held at the Disneyland Hotel, Anaheim California,
 on April 7th and 8th.  For Reservations, Car Rentals  and Airline tickets,
 call:  1-800-842-9034.    The  hours  of  the  show  are 10 am till 6pm on
 Saturday, the 7th and on Sunday; 10am till 5pm.   Admission is $5.00 per
 day or $7.00 for both days.
 Atari Corporation will feature their full  line of  products.   Of course,
 many of  the companies  we are  all familiar with will be displaying their
 latest products. 

 Exhibitor Listing;
               Atari Computer                Avant Garde                   
               Best Electronics              Beckemeyer Development 
               Brumeleve Software            Computer Games +
               Codehead Software             Double Click Software
               Gadgets by Small              DataFree Industries
               FAST TECHNOLOGY               ICD INC.
               Imagen Corporation            LucasFilms Software
               Maverick Creations            Migraph Inc.
               Megamax Inc.                  MichTron Inc.
               Mid-City Compu-Soft           Micro Creations
               Prospera Online                 
               Seymor/Radix                  Slicc Software
               Softrek Marketing             San Jose Computer
               Talon Technology              Word Perfect Corp.
                                   Wuztech Inc.

  plus many more...

                           <*- SPECIAL OFFER -*>

                 for the readers of CPU NewsWire/STReir  monthly publication, featuring such
     notables as Dave Small, Dr. Dave Brewton, Joe Speigel, Earl  Hill, Bob
     Mulholland, George  Miller, Milt  Creighton, Brian  Miller, Mike Rosen
     and of course, Larry Payne and Charlie Young.

     For a limited time only, the readers of  STReport may  subscribe to ST
     World Magazine  for the  low, low  price of  $12.00  (REG $18.00!) p_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 

 ST WORLD    Subscription                    Mail To:
                                                    ST WORLD MAGAZINE
                                                    2463 LANTONA CT. ne
 Please enter my subscription to ST World for       SALEM, OR.,  97303
 a period of (1)one year @ $12.00 { }                 1-503-393-9688
  FOREIGN:   (1)one year @ $15.00 { }

 Name: _______________________________________________________________

 Address: ____________________________________________________________


 Phone:______________________Computer System:_________________________

 Amount:$______________Check#__________Money Order#________DO NOT SEND
 American Express - VISA - MasterCard#_______________________exp:__/__


 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

 Make your reservations early!  

          The Disneyland Hotel is almost BOOKED SOLID call: 
               1-714-956-6400 for your reservations....


  > Hard Drive Info STReport InfoFile?      Affordable Mass Storage

                        NEW PRICES! & MORE MODELS!!

                      ABCO COMPUTER ELECTRONICS INC.
              P.O. Box 6672  Jacksonville, Florida 32236-6672
                                Est.  1985

                   Voice: 904-783-3319  10 AM - 4 PM EDT
                     BBS: 904-786-4176   12-24-96 HST
                    FAX: 904-783-3319  12 PM - 6 AM EDT
   All systems are complete and ready to use, included at NO EXTRA COST
                 are clo
                 (you are NOT limited to two drives ONLY!)
                   (all cables and connectors installed)

                  * SCSI EMBEDDED CO0   579.00
         51mb #SGN4951   619.00              65mb #SG60101   679.00
         80mb #SGN296    719.00             100mb #SG84011D  939.00


                            :IMPORTANT NOTICE:

                      ****** for $100.00 LESS! ******
                 That's right! A custom two for one sale.
                     Buy with a friend and save money!
                        CALL TODAY and ORDER YOURS!

               * SYQUEST 44MB (#555) REMOVABLE MEDIA DRIVE *

     - SYQUEST 44 MB removable media drive     - ICD ST Host Adapter
     - ICD Mass Storage Utility Software       - 3' DMA Cable 
     - Fan & Clock                             - Multi-Unit Power Supply
                          (1) 44 MB Syquest Cart.

                   in a shoebox OR under monitor cabinet  
                               ONLY $889.00

                        SPECIALLY PRICED  $1539.00 

         - Syquest 44 Model [555] and the following hard drives -
          50mb SQG51   $1279.00MING SOON!   INSITE FLOPTICAL DRIVE  *****
                          August-September, 1990

            uses standard 3.5" floppy disks and Floptical disks
           Will access and read your present library of floppys

                              $789.95 approx.  
           Listed above are a sampling of the systems available.
      Prices also reflect various cabinet/power supply configurations
    (over sixty configurations are available, flexibility is unlimited)
            *** ALL Units: Average Access Time: 24ms - 34ms ***

             LARGER units are available - (special order only)

 We would offer floppy drives..  but Computer Shopper has 'em at  the right
 price.  And.. you can plug 'em right into our cabinets and power supplies.
 Low-Boy OR Standard Case (designed with  room  for  another  3.5  OR 5.25"
 drive)  They're made for user expansion!  TRUE UPGRADE-ABILITY!

      complete units only, no scaled down versions or refurbs offered
       - Custom Walnut WOODEN Cabinets - TOWER - AT - XT Cabinets - 
                   Keyboard Custom Cables Call for Info
                      ALL POWER SUPPLIES UL APPROVED

                       -* 12 month FULL Guarantee *-
                         (A FULL YEAR of COVERAGE)


                     DEALERS and DISTRIBUTORS WANTED!
                         please, call for details

                 Personal and Company Checks are accepted.

                            ORDER YOURS TODAY!

                       904-783-3319    9am - 8pm EDT


 > A "Quotable Quote"?

        "The level of expertise varies in inverse proportion to...
       the number of statements understood by the general public!!"

                                           ...from THE PABLUM MANUAL

 CPU/STR?           "Your Independent News Source"        February 23, 1990
 16/32bit Magazine         copyright = 1989                      No.4.08
 Views, Opinions and Articles Presented herein are not necessarily those of
 the editors, staff,  CPU  NEWSWIRE?  CPU/STR?  or  CPU  Report?.   Reprint
 permission is  hereby granted,  unless otherwise noted.  All reprints must
 include CPU NEWSWIRE, CPU/STR or CPU  Report and  the author's  name.  All
 information presented  herein is  believed correct,  the editors and staff
 are not responsible for any use or misuse of information contained herein.


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