Atari 5200 System NotesFrom: Craig Lisowski (aa853@cleveland.Freenet.Edu)
Date: 02/15/96-03:14:21 PM Z
- Next message by date: Michael Current: "Another SIO2PC Cable"
- Previous message by date: JTKIRK@urp.edu.pe: "Atari Controller Notes"
- Return to Index: Sort by: [ date ] [ author ] [ thread ] [ subject ]
From: aa853@cleveland.Freenet.Edu (Craig Lisowski) Subject: Atari 5200 System Notes Date: Thu Feb 15 15:14:21 1996 A.N.A.L.O.G. #15, January 1984 TRANSPORTING ATARI COMPUTER PROGRAMS TO THE 5200 by Claus Buchholz When Atari designed the 5200 "Supersystem" as a successor to the aging 2600 VCS, they made use of the state-of-the-art hardware they put into their 400/800 home computers. As a result, the systems are quite similar. The differences are great enough, however, that transporting programs from one system to the other requires some effort. The 5200 is a single-board machine with four controller jacks, a cartridge slot, an I/O expansion connector and a power/RF cable. It shares the same VLSI chips with the 400/800, except for the 6520 PIA (joystick/parallel I/O ports). The other chips (ANTIC, GTIA, POKEY and the 6502 CPU) are in the 5200, although some of their registers are in different memory locations than those in the 400/800. Also, some of the registers serve slightly different purposes. Figure 1 is a block diagram of the 5200. Let's look at each section of the hardware in turn. When a specific register is mentioned in the article, the name is taken from the Hardware Manual in the 400/800 Technical Reference Notes. With the exceptions listed in this article, the Hardware Manual applies also to the 5200. 6502 CPU. Although it is a standard 6502 from the programmer's view, Atari has reworked this chip to save four support chips. Those four chips mediate access of the system bus by the 6502B and ANTIC in the 400/800, but that function is built into the 6502C in the 5200. Atari also uses the 6502C in the new XL series of computers. 16K RAM. The 5200 contains 16K bytes of RAM addressed from $0000 to $3FFF, just as in an unexpanded 400. The memory circuit is nearly identical to that in the 400, except it uses 4516s, a 5V-only version of the 4116 16K-bit dynamic RAM. The 5200 monitor program reserves locations $0000 through $0018 and $0200 through $021B for shadows and RAM vectors. And, of course, page $01 is reserved for the 6502 stack. The rest of the RAM is available to the cartridge program. ANTIC. This is the same ANTIC chip used in the 400/800. Since ANTIC shares the address bus with the CPU and has no chip select input, its registers reside in the same place in the 5200's memory as in the 400/800's, page $D4. The 5200 has no System Reset key, so bit 5 of NMIST is useless and the 5200's interrupt handler ignores it. GTIA. The GTIA and its registers perform the same functions in the 5200 and 400/800, except as noted below. The registers, however, reside at page $C0 in the 5200's memory, not at $D0 as in the 400/800. The trigger inputs, TRIG0 through TRIG3, are wired to the controller ports, one to a port. The bottom button on either side of the leftmost controller zeroes the TRIG0 register when pressed, and likewise for the other ports. The bits in CONSOL, the 400/800's console switch port (START, OPTION, SELECT and speaker), are used as outputs in the 5200, Bit 3, the 400/800's speaker control can still be toggled in the 5200 to produce sounds through the TV speaker. Bit 2 controls the pots in the joystick controllers. It must be set high to enable the pots. Bits 1 and 0 select which controller port is to be active at one time. 00 selects port #1 (the leftmost), 01 selects #2, 10 selects #3, and 11 selects #4. The trigger buttons and pots are independent of this selection; it applies only to the keypads and top side buttons on the controllers. POKEY. POKEY's registers are all addressed at page $EB in the 5200 as opposed to $D2 in the 400/800. Its functions are unchanged, however, except for two. The eight pot inputs used for paddles in the 400/800 are wired to the 5200's controller ports, two to a port. Each controller has an analog joystick, using one pot to sense horizontal position and a second pot for vertical position. The even pots (POT0-POT6) give the horizontal positions of range from 1 to 228; the maximum readings are to the right for the horizontal pot and at the bottom for the vertical pot. Figure 2 shows the pinout for the 5200 controllers. Pin Function 1 Keypad -- right column 2 Keypad -- middle column 3 Keypad -- left column 4 Start, Pause, and Reset common 5 Keypad -- third row and Reset 6 Keypad -- second row and Pause 7 Keypad -- top row and Start 8 Keypad -- bottom row 9 Pot common 10 Horizontal pot (POT0, 2, 4, 6) 11 Vertical pot (POT1, 3, 5, 7) 12 5 volts DC 13 Bottom side buttons (TRIG0, 1, 2, 3) 14 Top side buttons 15 0 volts -- ground The keyboard scanning lines in the 400/800 are used in the 5200 to read the keypad keys to the one controller that is selected by bits 1 and 0 in CONSOL. Only four lines are used, though, so only bits 1 through 4 of KBCODE are valid. Table 1 gives the keycode for each key on the controller. The top side buttons on the selected controller act like the 400/800 shift keys and also cause a BREAK-key interrupt, if that's enabled. Bit 0 of SKCTL, the debounce enable bit, need not be set in the 5200. KBCODE Key bits Keypad code ------------------- none 0000 $FF # 0001 $0B 0 0010 $00 * 0011 $0A Reset 0100 $0E 9 0101 $09 8 0110 $08 7 0111 $07 Pause 1000 $0D 6 1001 $06 5 1010 $05 4 1011 $04 Start 1100 $0C 3 1101 $03 2 1110 $02 1 1111 $01 POKEY's serial I/O lines are used in the 5200, but they are wired to the I/O expansion connector, an edge connector hidden behind a small door in the rear of the 5200. This connector allows for more hardware registers addressed at page $E0, and for peripherals using the serial port. See Figure 3 for the pinout of this connector. Its existence demonstrates Atari's original plans to expand the 5200 system. Top Bottom ----------------------------------------------- +5V DC 1 36 +5V DC Audio Out (2 port) 2 35 Not connected Ground 3 34 Ground R/W Early 4 33 Not connected Enable E0-EF 5 32 D7 D6 6 31 D5 D4 7 30 D3 D2 8 29 D1 D0 9 28 Ground IRQ 10 27 A0 Ground 11 26 A1 Serial Data In 12 25 A2 Serial In Clock 13 24 A3 Serial Out Clock 14 23 A4 Serial Data Out 15 22 A5 Audio In 16 21 A6 A14 17 20 A7 System Clock 01 18 19 A11 ROM. The 5200 has a 2K ROM on board which holds the character set and monitor program. The character set, which is an exact copy of the 400/800's set, resides at pages $F8 through $FB, and the monitor sits at $FC through $FF. The cartridge ROM can be 32K bytes long and resides in memory from $4000 to $BFFF. Figure 4 shows the pinout of the cartridge slot. The two interlock connectors are wired together on a cartridge board. The 5200 uses this as a switch for the cartridge's power connections and as a Reset signal. Therefore, a cartridge may be safely removed or inserted while the 5200 is powered on. D0 1 36 Interlock D1 2 35 A11 D2 3 34 A12 D3 4 33 A10 D4 5 32 A13 D5 6 31 A9 D6 7 30 Audio In (2 port) D7 8 29 A8 Enable 80-8F 9 28 Not Connected Enable 40-7F 10 27 A7 Not Connected 11 26 +5V DC Ground 12 25 Ground Ground 13 24 Ground (Video In on 2 port) Ground (System Clock 02 on 2 port) 14 23 Ground A6 15 22 A4 A5 16 21 A3 A2 17 20 A1 Interlock 18 19 A0 The 5200 monitor program. The 1K monitor program in ROM has three functions: (1) to initialize the system before running the cartridge program, (2) to service interrupts as they occur, and (3) to maintain shadows of some important hardware registers. Recall that the 400/800 Operating System is 10K bytes long and performs the above functions. It also provides peripheral handlers, predefined graphics modes, a screen editor, and floating point math routines. Those utilities do not exist in the 5200. Table 2 shows the RAM locations used by the monitor for shadows and RAM vectors. Table 2. 5200 Monitor RAM Locations. Page Zero Locations $00 Shadow for IRQEN $01 Real time clock (high byte) $02 Real time clock (low byte) $03 Critical code flag (if non-zero, VBI routine is abbreviated) $04 Attract mode timer/flag $05 Shadow for DLISTL $06 Shadow for DLISTH $07 Shadow for DMACTL $08-$10 Shadows for COLPMO through COLBK $11-$18 Shadows for POT0 through POT7 Page Two Vectors $200 Immediate IRQ vector $202 Immediate VBI vector $204 Deferred VBI vector $206 DLI vector $208 Keyboard IRQ vector $20A Keypad routine continuation vector $20C BREAK key IRQ vector $20E BRK instruction IRQ vector $210 Serial Input Data Ready IRQ vector $212 Serial Output Data Needed IRQ vector $214 Serial Output Finished IRQ vector $216 POKEY Timer 1 IRQ vector $218 POKEY Timer 2 IRQ vector $21A POKEY Timer 4 IRQ vector Upon Reset, the 6502 vectors through $FFFC to the initialization routine. This routine performs the following sequence. 1. Disable maskable interrupts, clear the 6502 decimal flag, and set the stack pointed to $01FF. 2. If the cartridge address $BFFD contains $FF, then jump immediately through the vector at $BFFE (diagnostic cartridge). 3. Zero all hardware registers and page $00, set CHBASE to point to the character set at $F8, and initialize the first six RAM vectors starting at $0200. 4. Set up the Atari logo rainbow display. The cartridge title (20 characters) and copyright year (2 characters) in ANTIC mode 7 display code are taken from cartridge addresses $BFE8 through $BFFD. 5. Enable VBI (Vertical Blank Interrupt) and DLI (Display List Interrupt), and enable key scan. 6. Wait four seconds, then jump through the vector at $BFFE to the cartridge program. When the 6502 receives a non-maskable interrupt (NMI), it vectors through $FFFA to the NMI handler. The following steps take place: 1. Check NMIST and strobe NMIRES to reset the interrupt status. 2. If a DLI is pending, jump through the DLI vector (initialized to point to the rainbow effect routine). 3. If a VBI is pending, jump through the immediate VBI vector (initialized to point to the VBI routine). 4. Else, return from the interrupt (no System Reset). A cartridge program can change these vectors to point to its own DLI and VBI routines, if it must. The default VBI routine takes the following action. 1. Push A, X, and Y onto stack, increment the real time clock, and update the attract mode timer. 2. If the critical code flag byte is non-zero, then pop Y, X, and A from the stack and return from the interrupt. 3. Update DLISTL, DLISTH, and DMACTL from their shadows. 4. Maintain the attract mode flag and update the GTIA color registers from their shadows. 5. Update the pot shadows from POT0 through POT7, and strobe POTGO to start another pot scan. 6. Jump through the deferred VBI vector (initialized to point to the end-of-interrupt routine, which pops Y, X, and A, and returns from the interrupt). If maskable interrupts (IRQs) are enabled and one is received, the 6502 vectors through $FFFE to an instruction which jumps through the immediate IRQ vector. That vector is initialized to point to the IRQ routine, which performs the following tasks. 1. Push A and check IRQST. 2. For each of the eight bits in IRQST, check for a pending interrupt. If found, then clear the status bit, update IRQEN from its shadow, and jump through the appropriate IRQ vector. 3. If no interrupt found, then push X and check for a BRK instruction interrupt. If found, then jump through the BRK instruction IRQ vector. 4. Else, pop X and A and return from the interrupt. The only IRQ vector that is initialized is the keyboard IRQ vector, which points to the keypad read routine. That routine does the following: 1. Push X and Y. 2. Read KBCODE and mask bits 1 through 4. 3. Convert to the keypad code given in Table 1, leaving that code in A. 4. Jump through the keypad routine continuation vector (initialized to point to the end-of-interrupt routine). Comparing the 5200's monitor vectors to the 400/800's OS vectors, we see that Atari paid no attention to compatibility between the two. This further complicates the task of converting a program from one system to the other. Transportability. It would not be difficult, given the information in this article, to write a program in two versions, one for the 400/800 and another for the 5200. Nor would it be difficult, given the source code, to convert a finished program from the 5200 to the 400/800. The reverse is more difficult if the program takes advantage of special features in the 400/800 OS. Otherwise, the only task, aside from redefining some addresses, is to convert the keyboard/joystick input routines from one system to the other. I acquired the information in this article by dissecting a 5200 and disassembling its ROM. The 400/800 schematics in the Hardware Manual were quite helpful. It is interesting to note the difference between the two machines and to guess Atari's motives for the design differences. But the similarities grossly outweigh the differences, so that a 5200 program can be developed and almost entirely debugged before testing on a 5200. With the addition of an EPROM burner, a 400/800 can be a powerful development system for 5200 programs. An adventuresome hacker can even bypass the EPROM by putting dual-port RAM on the cartridge board and downloading programs from the 400/800 development system into the 5200 for testing. A.N.A.L.O.G. #16, February 1984 READER COMMENT 5200 Article Update. (ANALOG #15) Newer releases of the 5200 incorporate some minor hardware changes. Controller ports 3 and 4 have been eliminated, making POT4 through POT7, TRIG2, TRIG3, and bit 1 of CONSOL useless. A few of the connector pins have been redefined. Pin 2 of the I/O expansion connector now carries POKEY's Audio Out signal. Three pins on the cartridge connector have changed to accomodate the new 2600 adapter. The system clock, 02, is output on pin 14, isolated through a diode. An alternate video input is taken from pin 24 and is also isolated through a diode. Pin 30 provides an alternate audio input. There is space on the newer boards for circuitry for a PAL (European TV standard) version of the 5200. Also, on power- up, the monitor program checks for the PAL version by examining the GTIA register PAL after step 2 of the initialization routine. It also checks the cartridge program for PAL compatibility. The byte at $BFE7 should read $02 if compatible, or $00 if not. This is the only important change to the monitor program. There are some additional hardware changes, but none affects the machine's operation from the programmer's view. Claus Buchholz Greenwich, CT
- Next message by date: Michael Current: "Another SIO2PC Cable"
- Previous message by date: JTKIRK@urp.edu.pe: "Atari Controller Notes"
----------------------------------------- Return to message index