(5) "...for those who take mathematics only a few years after grade school...an elementary feeling for probability and statistics...[and]...a nodding acquaintance with the calculus." The 1969 book  contains some interesting thoughts about the mathematics and science curricula in general, which reveal a fuller development of CCSM's point of view: "Science and mathematics, by their inherent simplicity in comparison to most areas of knowledge, lend themselves to the development in children of attitudes of lifelong and general value.... They include (in no order of priority) a conviction that through analysis and synthesis comes understanding; a belief that quantitative measure adds dimensions to one's understanding that are always difficult and sometimes impossible to achieve by other means; a tolerance that permits consideration of all reasonable testable hypotheses which are consistant with available evidence; a healthy skepticism even toward conclusions supported by existing evidence; an optimism based on the belief that nothing is unknowable while much remains unknown; and finally, a belief that to understand, while indeed a means to power, is to enjoy and is therefore an end in it elf." "In his school experience with science, a child can make his own observations and organize them, then make his own predictions and check them. Thus he can directly appreciate the power of the scientific style of thought." "We do not want these experiments to be done occasionally as a sort of special treat,... but sufficiently often that the thought patterns that underlie the world of science will be habitual, if rudimentary, in every school graduate.” "A primary message of education should, we believe, be that thinking is worthwhile. Unfortunately, education has often been directed away from the imaginative and creative toward uninteresting, rote attention to details." "Each child must be convinced that his thinking is worthwhile." This is very exciting intellectual stuff: it's wise and idealistic in the best sense of that word. Reading it, one almost forgets two important things: (1) In spite of a clear intention to the contrary, these goals put pressure on researchers and schools to focus attention on still more new topics and new courses and away from such perennial problems as student motivation, teacher's job satisfaction, and the real need for students to acquire essential skills in an acceptable length of time. (2) The mathematicians and scientists who have come together as CCSM conferrees seem to have only a very hazy notion of what the non-mathematics-using citizen needs: "...difficult and important decisions are better made by people used to connecting reality with rationality....through the vital process of constructing simplified conceptual models for real world objects and interactions....There are severe limitations on a quantitative approach in a real life situation; but it seems better to go as far as one can with that approach than to abandon decisions to guess or superstition." "Environmental pollution, for example, is among the most critical problems of our times. Its solution will require the active cooperation of every individual. We will not get this cooperation until every citizen understands the problem well enough to feel the importance of his own role in the solution." In our highly organized and specialized society, I wonder whether the ability of an individual to make "simplified conceptual models" will contribute directly to his role in decision making. Also, is it realistic to imply that a process which has "severe limitations" in the hands of professionals will survive in a classroom setting lacking any but the most primitive tools for computation and analysis? One curriculum project has grown directly out of CCSM's efforts --Unified Science and Mathematics for Elementary Schools (USMES), and another has dedicated itself to implementing CCSM's goals-- Comprehensive School Mathematics Program (CSMP). However, there is not the boundless enthusiasm of old, nor the move to make swift changes in schools. Many researchers simply do not believe that the acceleration proposed is compatible with growth in understanding and enjoyment, especially at the elementary level. Burt Kaufman, Director of CSMP, an advocate of CCSM's goals, is cautious: "We've simply torn down the entire curriculum and rebuilt it from scratch. It could have a very big impact if the public is ready for it but it is going to be more difficult for the teacher."  The third major trend in the 1964-74 period is a very different kind of phenomenon. It has some, but not all, of the aspects of a new 'glamour movement' --computers in education. (While not strictly a development in mathematics, computing has impinged more on the mathematics curriculum than other subject areas for complex reasons, some social, some technical.) Before 1964, pioneering research in computer-assisted instruction by Bitzer at the University of Illinois and Suppes at Stanford gave rise to high hopes and some inflated statements: "the kind of individualized instruction once possible only for a few members of the aristocracy can be made available to all students at all levels of ability." [Suppes, 1] In the period since, and at the present, a good deal of research has been undertaken regarding not only computer-assisted instruction but a variety of other computer uses in education. An idea of the growth of research in computing can be gotten from Figure 1. This is a chart of some major mathematics curriculum (and related) projects, selected mainly from  and . It is not exhaustive, but should encompass most projects mentioned in widely read journals. Computer manufacturers have actively promoted their products to schools for both educational and administrative purposes. All this would point to a new educational panacea destined to fade or be absorbed without any deep effect. However, at least two features of this trend definitely set it apart from those have come (and gone) before it. First, the adoption of computers in schools is taking place independently as well as with funded research activity. The American Institutes for Research Survey  * figures of secondary schools using computers for educational or instructional (not administrative) purposes are: 1965 ------- 2% 1970 ------- 13%. Even though these figures must be considered very approximate, this growth cannot be accounted for by research programs. *A new survey is scheduled for release in 1975.